The virus

Brakora / 09.12.2017

the virus

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The poxviruses are large, complex viruses that have an unusual morphology. The viral genome is associated with proteins within a central disc structure known as a nucleoid.

The nucleoid is surrounded by a membrane and two lateral bodies of unknown function. The virus has an outer envelope with a thick layer of protein studded over its surface.

The whole virion is slightly pleiomorphic , ranging from ovoid to brick shape. The capsid appears hexagonal under an electron microscope, therefore the capsid is probably icosahedral.

Provisionally named Megavirus chilensis , it can be seen with a basic optical microscope. Some viruses that infect Archaea have complex structures that are unrelated to any other form of virus, with a wide variety of unusual shapes, ranging from spindle-shaped structures, to viruses that resemble hooked rods, teardrops or even bottles.

Other archaeal viruses resemble the tailed bacteriophages, and can have multiple tail structures. An enormous variety of genomic structures can be seen among viral species ; as a group, they contain more structural genomic diversity than plants, animals, archaea, or bacteria.

There are millions of different types of viruses, [4] although only about 5, types have been described in detail.

The vast majority of viruses have RNA genomes. Viral genomes are circular , as in the polyomaviruses , or linear , as in the adenoviruses.

The type of nucleic acid is irrelevant to the shape of the genome. Among RNA viruses and certain DNA viruses, the genome is often divided up into separate parts, in which case it is called segmented.

For RNA viruses, each segment often codes for only one protein and they are usually found together in one capsid. All segments are not required to be in the same virion for the virus to be infectious, as demonstrated by brome mosaic virus and several other plant viruses.

A viral genome, irrespective of nucleic acid type, is almost always either single-stranded or double-stranded.

Single-stranded genomes consist of an unpaired nucleic acid, analogous to one-half of a ladder split down the middle. Double-stranded genomes consist of two complementary paired nucleic acids, analogous to a ladder.

The virus particles of some virus families, such as those belonging to the Hepadnaviridae , contain a genome that is partially double-stranded and partially single-stranded.

For most viruses with RNA genomes and some with single-stranded DNA genomes, the single strands are said to be either positive-sense called the plus-strand or negative-sense called the minus-strand , depending on if they are complementary to the viral messenger RNA mRNA.

Positive-sense viral RNA is in the same sense as viral mRNA and thus at least a part of it can be immediately translated by the host cell.

Genome size varies greatly between species. In general, RNA viruses have smaller genome sizes than DNA viruses because of a higher error-rate when replicating, and have a maximum upper size limit.

In contrast, DNA viruses generally have larger genomes because of the high fidelity of their replication enzymes. Viruses undergo genetic change by several mechanisms.

This can be a result of recombination or reassortment. When this happens with influenza viruses, pandemics might result. Such quasispecies are a prime target for natural selection.

Segmented genomes confer evolutionary advantages; different strains of a virus with a segmented genome can shuffle and combine genes and produce progeny viruses or offspring that have unique characteristics.

This is called reassortment or viral sex. Genetic recombination is the process by which a strand of DNA is broken and then joined to the end of a different DNA molecule.

This can occur when viruses infect cells simultaneously and studies of viral evolution have shown that recombination has been rampant in the species studied.

Viral populations do not grow through cell division, because they are acellular. Instead, they use the machinery and metabolism of a host cell to produce multiple copies of themselves, and they assemble in the cell.

The life cycle of viruses differs greatly between species but there are six basic stages in the life cycle of viruses: Attachment is a specific binding between viral capsid proteins and specific receptors on the host cellular surface.

This specificity determines the host range of a virus. For example, HIV infects a limited range of human leucocytes. This mechanism has evolved to favour those viruses that infect only cells in which they are capable of replication.

Attachment to the receptor can induce the viral envelope protein to undergo changes that results in the fusion of viral and cellular membranes, or changes of non-enveloped virus surface proteins that allow the virus to enter.

Virions enter the host cell through receptor-mediated endocytosis or membrane fusion. This is often called viral entry. The infection of plant and fungal cells is different from that of animal cells.

Plants have a rigid cell wall made of cellulose , and fungi one of chitin, so most viruses can get inside these cells only after trauma to the cell wall.

Given that bacterial cell walls are much thinner than plant cell walls due to their much smaller size, some viruses have evolved mechanisms that inject their genome into the bacterial cell across the cell wall, while the viral capsid remains outside.

Uncoating is a process in which the viral capsid is removed: This may be by degradation by viral enzymes or host enzymes or by simple dissociation; the end-result is the releasing of the viral genomic nucleic acid.

Replication of viruses involves primarily multiplication of the genome. Replication involves synthesis of viral messenger RNA mRNA from "early" genes with exceptions for positive sense RNA viruses , viral protein synthesis , possible assembly of viral proteins, then viral genome replication mediated by early or regulatory protein expression.

This may be followed, for complex viruses with larger genomes, by one or more further rounds of mRNA synthesis: Assembly — Following the structure-mediated self- assembly of the virus particles, some modification of the proteins often occurs.

In viruses such as HIV, this modification sometimes called maturation occurs after the virus has been released from the host cell.

Release — Viruses can be released from the host cell by lysis , a process that kills the cell by bursting its membrane and cell wall if present: This is a feature of many bacterial and some animal viruses.

Some viruses undergo a lysogenic cycle where the viral genome is incorporated by genetic recombination into a specific place in the host's chromosome.

The viral genome is then known as a " provirus " or, in the case of bacteriophages a " prophage ". The viral genome is mostly silent within the host.

At some point, the provirus or prophage may give rise to active virus, which may lyse the host cells.

During this process the virus acquires its envelope, which is a modified piece of the host's plasma or other, internal membrane. The genetic material within virus particles, and the method by which the material is replicated, varies considerably between different types of viruses.

The range of structural and biochemical effects that viruses have on the host cell is extensive. The causes of death include cell lysis, alterations to the cell's surface membrane and apoptosis.

Some viruses, such as Epstein—Barr virus , can cause cells to proliferate without causing malignancy, [] while others, such as papillomaviruses , are established causes of cancer.

Some viruses cause no apparent changes to the infected cell. Cells in which the virus is latent and inactive show few signs of infection and often function normally.

This is often the case with herpes viruses. Viruses are by far the most abundant biological entities on Earth and they outnumber all the others put together.

Other viruses, such as rabies virus, can infect different species of mammals and are said to have a broad range.

Classification seeks to describe the diversity of viruses by naming and grouping them on the basis of similarities. Viruses were grouped according to their shared properties not those of their hosts and the type of nucleic acid forming their genomes.

The system proposed by Lwoff, Horne and Tournier was never fully accepted by the ICTV because small genome size viruses and their high rate of mutation makes it difficult to determine their ancestry beyond order.

As such, the Baltimore classification is used to supplement the more traditional hierarchy. The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses ICTV developed the current classification system and wrote guidelines that put a greater weight on certain virus properties to maintain family uniformity.

A unified taxonomy a universal system for classifying viruses has been established. Only a small part of the total diversity of viruses has been studied.

As of , nine orders, families, 46 subfamilies , genera, and 4, species of viruses have been defined by the ICTV. The Baltimore classification of viruses is based on the mechanism of mRNA production.

Viruses must generate mRNAs from their genomes to produce proteins and replicate themselves, but different mechanisms are used to achieve this in each virus family.

This classification places viruses into seven groups:. As an example of viral classification, the chicken pox virus, varicella zoster VZV , belongs to the order Herpesvirales , family Herpesviridae , subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae , and genus Varicellovirus.

The complete set of viruses in an organism or habitat is called the virome ; for example, all human viruses constitute the human virome.

Examples of common human diseases caused by viruses include the common cold , influenza, chickenpox , and cold sores. The relative ability of viruses to cause disease is described in terms of virulence.

Other diseases are under investigation to discover if they have a virus as the causative agent, such as the possible connection between human herpesvirus 6 HHV6 and neurological diseases such as multiple sclerosis and chronic fatigue syndrome.

Viruses have different mechanisms by which they produce disease in an organism, which depends largely on the viral species.

Mechanisms at the cellular level primarily include cell lysis, the breaking open and subsequent death of the cell.

In multicellular organisms , if enough cells die, the whole organism will start to suffer the effects. Although viruses cause disruption of healthy homeostasis , resulting in disease, they may exist relatively harmlessly within an organism.

An example would include the ability of the herpes simplex virus , which causes cold sores, to remain in a dormant state within the human body.

This is called latency [] and is a characteristic of the herpes viruses, including Epstein—Barr virus, which causes glandular fever, and varicella zoster virus , which causes chickenpox and shingles.

Most people have been infected with at least one of these types of herpes virus. Some viruses can cause lifelong or chronic infections, where the viruses continue to replicate in the body despite the host's defence mechanisms.

People chronically infected are known as carriers, as they serve as reservoirs of infectious virus. Viral epidemiology is the branch of medical science that deals with the transmission and control of virus infections in humans.

Transmission of viruses can be vertical, which means from mother to child, or horizontal, which means from person to person.

Examples of vertical transmission include hepatitis B virus and HIV, where the baby is born already infected with the virus. Horizontal transmission is the most common mechanism of spread of viruses in populations.

Transmission can occur when: The rate or speed of transmission of viral infections depends on factors that include population density, the number of susceptible individuals, i.

Epidemiology is used to break the chain of infection in populations during outbreaks of viral diseases. It is important to find the source, or sources, of the outbreak and to identify the virus.

Once the virus has been identified, the chain of transmission can sometimes be broken by vaccines. When vaccines are not available, sanitation and disinfection can be effective.

Often, infected people are isolated from the rest of the community, and those that have been exposed to the virus are placed in quarantine.

If outbreaks spread worldwide, they are called pandemics. Native American populations were devastated by contagious diseases, in particular, smallpox , brought to the Americas by European colonists.

The damage done by this disease significantly aided European attempts to displace and conquer the native population.

A pandemic is a worldwide epidemic. The flu pandemic , which lasted until , was a category 5 influenza pandemic caused by an unusually severe and deadly influenza A virus.

The victims were often healthy young adults, in contrast to most influenza outbreaks, which predominantly affect juvenile, elderly, or otherwise-weakened patients.

Most researchers believe that HIV originated in sub-Saharan Africa during the 20th century; [] it is now a pandemic, with an estimated Several highly lethal viral pathogens are members of the Filoviridae.

Filoviruses are filament-like viruses that cause viral hemorrhagic fever , and include ebolaviruses and marburgviruses. Marburg virus , first discovered in , attracted widespread press attention in April for an outbreak in Angola.

The worst and most recent one is the West Africa epidemic. Viruses are an established cause of cancer in humans and other species. Viral cancers occur only in a minority of infected persons or animals.

Cancer viruses come from a range of virus families, including both RNA and DNA viruses, and so there is no single type of " oncovirus " an obsolete term originally used for acutely transforming retroviruses.

The development of cancer is determined by a variety of factors such as host immunity [] and mutations in the host. The most recently discovered human cancer virus is a polyomavirus Merkel cell polyomavirus that causes most cases of a rare form of skin cancer called Merkel cell carcinoma.

The body's first line of defence against viruses is the innate immune system. This comprises cells and other mechanisms that defend the host from infection in a non-specific manner.

This means that the cells of the innate system recognise, and respond to, pathogens in a generic way, but, unlike the adaptive immune system , it does not confer long-lasting or protective immunity to the host.

RNA interference is an important innate defence against viruses. When such a virus infects a cell, it releases its RNA molecule or molecules, which immediately bind to a protein complex called a dicer that cuts the RNA into smaller pieces.

Rotaviruses have evolved to avoid this defence mechanism by not uncoating fully inside the cell, and releasing newly produced mRNA through pores in the particle's inner capsid.

Their genomic dsRNA remains protected inside the core of the virion. When the adaptive immune system of a vertebrate encounters a virus, it produces specific antibodies that bind to the virus and often render it non-infectious.

This is called humoral immunity. Two types of antibodies are important. The first, called IgM , is highly effective at neutralising viruses but is produced by the cells of the immune system only for a few weeks.

The second, called IgG , is produced indefinitely. The presence of IgM in the blood of the host is used to test for acute infection, whereas IgG indicates an infection sometime in the past.

Antibodies can continue to be an effective defence mechanism even after viruses have managed to gain entry to the host cell.

A protein that is in cells, called TRIM21 , can attach to the antibodies on the surface of the virus particle.

This primes the subsequent destruction of the virus by the enzymes of the cell's proteosome system. A second defence of vertebrates against viruses is called cell-mediated immunity and involves immune cells known as T cells.

The body's cells constantly display short fragments of their proteins on the cell's surface, and, if a T cell recognises a suspicious viral fragment there, the host cell is destroyed by killer T cells and the virus-specific T-cells proliferate.

Cells such as the macrophage are specialists at this antigen presentation. This is a hormone produced by the body when viruses are present. Its role in immunity is complex; it eventually stops the viruses from reproducing by killing the infected cell and its close neighbours.

Not all virus infections produce a protective immune response in this way. HIV evades the immune system by constantly changing the amino acid sequence of the proteins on the surface of the virion.

This is known as "escape mutation" as the viral epitopes escape recognition by the host immune response. These persistent viruses evade immune control by sequestration, blockade of antigen presentation , cytokine resistance, evasion of natural killer cell activities, escape from apoptosis , and antigenic shift.

Because viruses use vital metabolic pathways within host cells to replicate, they are difficult to eliminate without using drugs that cause toxic effects to host cells in general.

The most effective medical approaches to viral diseases are vaccinations to provide immunity to infection, and antiviral drugs that selectively interfere with viral replication.

Vaccination is a cheap and effective way of preventing infections by viruses. Vaccines were used to prevent viral infections long before the discovery of the actual viruses.

Their use has resulted in a dramatic decline in morbidity illness and mortality death associated with viral infections such as polio , measles , mumps and rubella.

Such viruses are called attenuated. Live vaccines can be dangerous when given to people with a weak immunity who are described as immunocompromised , because in these people, the weakened virus can cause the original disease.

These vaccines use only the capsid proteins of the virus. Hepatitis B vaccine is an example of this type of vaccine. Antiviral drugs are often nucleoside analogues fake DNA building-blocks , which viruses mistakenly incorporate into their genomes during replication.

The life-cycle of the virus is then halted because the newly synthesised DNA is inactive. This is because these analogues lack the hydroxyl groups, which, along with phosphorus atoms, link together to form the strong "backbone" of the DNA molecule.

This is called DNA chain termination. Aciclovir is one of the oldest and most frequently prescribed antiviral drugs. HIV is dependent on a proteolytic enzyme called the HIV-1 protease for it to become fully infectious.

There is a large class of drugs called protease inhibitors that inactivate this enzyme. Hepatitis C is caused by an RNA virus.

There is now an effective treatment that uses the nucleoside analogue drug ribavirin combined with interferon. Viruses infect all cellular life and, although viruses occur universally, each cellular species has its own specific range that often infect only that species.

Viruses are important pathogens of livestock. Diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease and bluetongue are caused by viruses.

Canine parvovirus is caused by a small DNA virus and infections are often fatal in pups. There are many types of plant virus, but often they cause only a loss of yield , and it is not economically viable to try to control them.

Plant viruses are often spread from plant to plant by organisms , known as vectors. These are normally insects, but some fungi, nematode worms , and single-celled organisms have been shown to be vectors.

When control of plant virus infections is considered economical, for perennial fruits, for example, efforts are concentrated on killing the vectors and removing alternate hosts such as weeds.

Get the best new trailers in under a minute, including " True Detective " Season 3, Spies in Disguise , and " Room When the crew of an American tugboat boards an abandoned Russian research vessel, the alien life form aboard regards them as a virus which must be destroyed.

The Sweet Life, an edgy and unconventional dramedy, is the love story of Kenny Parker and Lolita Nowicki, each struggling with their own brand of demons, who first meet by chance in Chicago After a virus devastates the global human population, survivors in Antarctica desperately try to find a cure and save the human race.

The film is based on the true story of the serial-killing con man Roy Fontaine who worked as a butler and robbed and murdered numerous employers throughout England and Scotland.

A government conspiracy revisits mind control and takes it to new depths, beyond the days of MK Ultra.

Start your free trial. Implant someone with a Mind Seed and it will slowly reshape the victim's mind- against their will or even without them noticing- into a mental replica of the psion at the time the power was used.

Though the resulting personality will still have their own free will, the fact that it now shares the goals of the psion makes it incredibly effective.

Kaorti reproduce by infecting humans, elves and the like, causing them to transform into more kaorti. Those who are cured of the infection before transformation becomes irrevocable have dreams about the Eldritch Abomination that created the kaorti from human or elf mages in the first place.

His goal is to ultimately corrupt the world, turning it into a Single-Biome Planet of snow and darkness. Note that these are both ostensibly science-fiction rather than fantasy or magical species.

Warhammer 40, Powers of Chaos, which can quite effectively turn the open mind into a willing cultist and a traitor to mankind.

Let's just say that in this universe, General Ripper typically has the right idea. The dreaded Obliterator virus, which turns you into something truly horrific.

The first tip that something horrible is going on is when you realise that you're spontaneously generating ammunition for your gun, which is becoming gradually more attached to your hand.

From here, it's only a short trip to the point where you're an out-and-out psycho who can absorb guns, then create them again fused to your flesh.

When compared to the fates of some Chaos cultists, especially those who fail think living flesh bag of pain and get worse , the bloodthirsty insanity and difficulty of speech is not that bad and the Body Horror comparatively mild.

Once transformed, you're likely to see your fate as Cursed with Awesome. Another electronic example is The Virus in Traveller: The New Era , originally designed as a weapon for shutting down the navigation systems of enemy warships in order to end the war without further bloodshed.

Unfortunately the version that was prematurely unleashed when the research station working on it was attacked would shut down every computer in the vicinity through means unexplained though heavily implied to be psionic in nature , with Then it evolved full intelligence, which didn't improve matters.

One of Feng Shui 's many Creature Powers is "Corruption", which allows a supernatural creature to infect others with their supernatural essence, and in this way create more of their kind.

Corpse factories in the Glimpse of the Abyss supplement use a variant of this to create zombies for all your Zombie Apocalypse needs.

Surprise, surprise, they were called "the Virus". Phyrexia, in all its incarnations, has this as one of its most prominent themes.

Several New Phyrexian cards are older cards given a Phyrexian twist. A legendary creature card from the Innistrad set, Olivia Voldaren , is a classic infectious vampire: The Exsurgent virus family in Eclipse Phase.

Different strains can infect computers Oh, and they're very, very adaptive. A digital strain can infect a nanofabricator , reprogramming it to produce biological and nanotechnological variants, which then go on to infect other beings and devices.

Oh, and it can also be transmitted as pure sensory information, so you can get infected just by watching the wrong video , known as a basilisk hack.

That might get very, very bad, very, very quickly. The opera Help, Help, The Globolinks! Humans touched by Globolinks are gradually transformed into Globolinks, first losing the ability to speak human language.

In Eugene Ionesco's absurdist play Rhinoceros , the townsfolk are all spontaneously transforming into rhinos. In the finale, the Builders are pushed to desperation by the Resistance.

They unleash the Vehicons, who infect Cybertronians with a virus that removes their spark and turns them into more Vehicons.

Then it turns out they can infect Autobots and Decepticons too. It's all part of their creator's plan to remove the spark of every living thing on Cybertron.

The character Alex Mercer is The Virus. Under the right circumstances, The Virus gives a human being the powers to fly around and kill stuff with viral blades and whips and shit as in the case of the main character ; otherwise, you'll turn into a mindless, shambling, living zombie or a mutant with augmented speed and strength as in the case of a lot of New Yorkers.

It also infests warehouses and ONLY warehouses for some obscure reason to produce beefed up mutants that are incredibly annoying. The Big Bad Elizabeth Greene is the other virus, and because of her aggressive nature and the fact that Mercer's virus seems inert read: Alex can't get half the bodycount she does unless the player's doing it on purpose.

The viral Alex, anyway. Crysis 2 has a viral outbreak in Manhattan that may or may not be from the Ceph, and certainly wasn't mentioned at all in the original Crysis.

A group called C. Bacterion, Gofer, and Zelos of the Gradius series are incarnations of The Virus; Every time you defeat any one of these guys, the Bacterian cells that they are composed of will increase in numbers.

Venom also applies to this too, since he's been modified by the Bacterians. Fall of Man , an alternate history first-person shooter, the aliens known as the Chimera use a mutagenic virus that causes humans to fall into a coma and undergo horrific physical mutations that turn them into Chimera soldiers.

These mutated soldiers retain no trace of their former personality and are completely subservient to the elite Chimera known as Angels; in fact, Chimera soldiers die if their psychic link with the Angels is severed.

They needed a Conversion Center to fully complete the transformation in a reasonable amount of time. In R2, infected people simply have cocoons built around them and are left to transform on their own.

Appears in the WarCraft series. The Lich King produces a virus which kills humans, then resurrects them as undead loyal to him.

There is also a faction of Undead, the "Forsaken", who have broken free of the Lich King's control and have regained their free will.

In other words, every human, dwarf, gnome, and trogg and possibly a few other species too is "infected" by The Virus! The Flood in the Halo franchise, which latches onto sentient life forms, hijacks their body, mutates them horribly, and, when the host is no longer usable, uses it to incubate more Flood infection forms.

The infection forms even look like macroscopic bacteriophages. To make it even worse, the minds and memories of every infectee are all assimilated into the Gravemind it occasionally brags about transhumanism and ending suffering.

This allows the Flood to, after a certain stage of outbreak, use any tool you can, if they can get their grubby tentacles onto it. Coupled with icky Body Horror and the assimilation and hacking of even spaceships, this Nightmare Fuel isn't too much of a stretch to imagine wiping out an entire pan-galactic civilization The Forerunner Saga reveals that they're actually the malevolent remains of a highly-advanced species known only as "the Precursors"; during their conflict against the Forerunners, they literally crushed entire planets with Precursor technology and could corrupt AIs with telepathy alone.

Around X2 , Sigma has become one with the virus, allowing him to get brought back between games for a reappearance and making virus victims extensions of Sigma's will to an extent.

Before the events of the X series, Sigma fought Zero and the latter lost the virus, but Sigma got infected. This left Zero with some side effects in, like getting a power boost from the Sigma Virus and being mostly impervious to reinfection.

The Sigma Virus is shown in X5 to have two other varieties: The fact that it can hurt Zero alludes to the possibility of Zero getting infected and becoming Awakened Zero if Eurasia is not destroyed, as well as implying that it might be based on the original, unmutated virus.

This became important for Albert's Evil Plan. The Roboenza in Mega Man 10 is essentially a robotic equivalent of the flu, except for the fact that it causes infected robots to go berserk.

It was made by Dr. Wily of course, despite his claims to the contrary. Left 4 Dead with the infection. In most cases the virus will turn most people into unintelligent "runner" zombies who will psychotically attack any uninfected individual.

Body Horror comes into play when some of the infected mutate into special infected that feature warped bodies optimized for specific special abilities.

The virus spreads by the infected transmitting bodily fluids I. Getting bitten or being exposed to zombie bodily fluid , but it can also be spread by unknown means by asymptomatic carriers, individuals who show no signs of the infection but can still spread it.

As it turns out, all eight Player Characters are carriers. Sacrifice comic reveals that the virus mutates daily. One day it's airborne, next day it's something else.

The Tuurngait virus in the Penumbra series: Able to infect pretty much everything. Causes the infected to become stronger and more resilient or just ridiculously huge, depending on species.

The virus is also sentient and controls all of the infected through telepathy. Oh, and it is older than humanity. They started up a fairly innocuous power-boost, except in a few very specially treated individuals, who began to suffer from mad wanderlust and lose their minds.

They then attempt to join up with the head of Jenova. The main character, who was traveling all over the world for a reason he could hardly justify, based on little more than instinct, and seemed to suffer occasional but horrific mental episodes, turned out to be one himself.

According to Ifalna, in her interviews with Professor Gast, Jenova first landed on the Planet and began spreading its cells like a virus, mutating the Cetra into horrible monsters under its control.

The monsters employed the same abilities as mommy, able to absorb the appearance and memories of their hosts, and quickly slaughtered a whole civilization by imitating their loved ones.

It seems that Jenova itself is an entity that travels from Planet to Planet, infecting the native inhabitants and transforming them into carriers to further spread its infection around, before bringing them all back and "reuniting" itself to travel to another Planet and continue the cycle.

How long it's been doing this is anyone's guess. The Super Mutants from the Fallout games were created by the Forced Evolutionary Virus; the first game culminated in the player destroying the transformation vats, although they could agree to be turned into a Super Mutant to achieve a Non-Standard Game Over.

Most victims only suffer skin lesions, but the more severely affected lose their minds and become Wildmen, or worse, fully degenerate into Trogs.

Nearly all children born in infested area become Trogs within a few weeks of birth, with the exception of Marie Ashur, the daughter of the slavers' leader, who has an immunity to TDC, offering hope for an eventual cure.

Vault 22 in Fallout: New Vegas is infected by a parasitic fungus that mutates exposed humans into Spore Carriers, which spread the fungus further; some of the fungus has escaped as far as Zion Canyon and Big Mountain, as evident by the presence of Carriers there.

Metroid Prime 's Phazon is an example, but to very varying degrees, depending on the game and target. In Prime 2 , the Ing also have a tendency to take over the bodies of other creatures, both living and dead.

The X Parasites from Metroid Fusion are a more traditional version of this trope, as their only purpose is to infect more people.

Mass Effect includes the Thorian, which is a plant-like entity that uses spores to mentally control people through pain. Also, there's Sovereign, a Reaper which controls the minds of its victims through a process known as "indoctrination".

People controlled by Sovereign can only be saved by killing them. Both cases also involve instances where people choose to overcome the mind-control the only way they can.

To further fit this trope, unguided or faulty indoctrination seems to wake the desire to become a cyberzombie, leading the victims to jump onto the zombiefying devices.

This may or may not be intended as a failsafe. The Sands of Time in the Prince of Persia trilogy work like this.

Once released, they instantly turn everything they come in contact with into a crazed Enemy to All Living Things living in this case being the few lucky souls who weren't instantly transformed.

Somehow, when the Prince is exposed in the third game of the series, he manages to resist instant transformation, although he still gains a Superpowered Evil Side.

The Corrupted, from the sequel, are an aversion-it's their own damnn fault they're Eldritch Abominations now.

The R-Type series eventually evolved the Bydo into something like this, although this isn't their favored modus operandi: This is what happens to you in one ending in Final.

The thing is that you don't even realize you were infected by it. Resident Evil is replete with these, both in the form of literal viruses, and the Las Plagas parasites.

Knights of the Old Republic has rakghouls , deformed mutants with infectious bites, living in the Undercity of Taris. The player character cannot be infected, but several infected NPCs are seen transforming.

In some cases it can be prevented with a dose of rakghoul serum, but once the victim has actually been transformed they must be killed.

Interestingly, when the player character or a party member is bitten, they can be poisoned and take standard poison damage, and there is an instance where you save an NPC and he has been bitten and poisoned, but no one comments on this.

This may mean that the rakghoul disease can be avoided outright if treated immediately. In the comics, it was revealed that the rakghoul disease was concocted by a Sith who made a talisman that instantly transformed humans into rakghouls which he could control, getting them to use their old skills, like weaponry.

Comics taking place between the movies of the original trilogy had a fallen Jedi using this talisman on various heroes, including a member of The Remnant.

By the time of Star Wars: The Old Republic , set over three hundred years later, it's revealed that the rakghouls survived the bombing of Taris and now are not only capable of infecting people, but breeding independently, leading to hordes of rakghoul that can be seen from orbit.

It then goes From Bad to Worse with the reveal that the virus has similarly evolved over the centuries, rendering the rakghoul serum ineffective against the new strain.

Now the virus can affect players during a certain world event, but it is affected by Gameplay and Story Segregation ; stage 1 infection causes frequent coughing fits, after 10 minutes it progresses to stage 2 which causes them to be more frequent and also adds Glowing Eyes , then after 10 more minutes the infectee begins to mutate before violently exploding.

You can obtain a vaccine to protect yourself from infection for 6 hours after it's administrated. Extermination revolved around this.

The Virus would mutate and corrupt pretty much anything to do with water. The Beast subversion entity certainly counts.

It quite literally rips its host apart, extracts their neurons, and then sets about using them to form an organic computer network it can subsequently use to control the ship they were flying, and hence infect more vessels.

The quote formerly at the top of the page comes from the initial cut-sequence describing the entity — spoken by a poor engineer who sounds like he either wants to throw up or cry just about all the way through.

Ordinary Beast entities have an animalistic behavior and only care about multiplying. The original entity inside the Naggarok however, is very much sentient: It also tricks them into believing that the Bentusi are gone and that they will get the Nomad Moon.

When the Moon is infected and is subsequently destroyed by the Somtaaw who in turn receive aid from a Bentusi ship, the Imperials flip out and turn against the Beast; cue the Naggarok calling in all of its "children" to catch the ''Kuun-Lan'' from three sides.

Silpheed has an entire ship — the ship that refueled you about ten seconds ago , to boot — get taken over by an alien virus and turns into not only an enemy alien, but also That One Boss.

The old Area 51 lightgun game revolves around an alien virus being unleashed and causing a Zombie Apocalypse in the area. The Game Over screen shows a video of the protagonist morphing into one of the alien mutants.

Dead Space 's Necromorphs are unique in that only one of its forms is The Virus and it can only infect dead people.

It's the task of the other Necromorphs to ensure there are dead bodies to infect. The Virus can somewhat infected people but only after weeks of being in contact with the source or at least being around the marker , drive them insane and kill themselves, after a few more hours the virus takes effect.

The infector verson just speeds up the progess form 10 hours to 10 seconds. They stop spreading it after a few days. Yamask and Cofagrigus's ability, Mummy, is this.

When it is touched by the opponent their ability turns to Mummy. Assault has the Aparoids, a robotic insect colony from another dimension that infects both biological creatures and mechanical objects.

A prime example of a victim is Pigma Dengar, who is fully assimilated by the aparoids, effectively killing him before he is destroyed by Fox.

General Pepper nearly suffers the same fate. Alma does this to Sergeant Keegan in F. Project Origin , using her psychic powers to literally make him fall in love with her.

The only way to save him is to kill him. For a technological example: It's much more powerful in the novel adaptations, in which the virus can take over just about any machine and give it sentience, and possesses AI of its own, allowing it to intelligently react to and avoid anti-virus measures.

The strange virus from Puzzlebox boosts a person's resilience to injury, inspires creativity and drives its hosts mad. The Elder Scrolls Throughout the series, Vampirism and Lycanthropy are actually diseases though divine in origin which can be spread via any wound inflicted by a carrier of the disease.

In the case of vampirism, it starts off fairly innocuous fatigue, insomnia, nightmares and is easily cured within the first few days of being contracted.

Porphyric Hemophilia, Sanguinare Vampiris, and Noxiphilic Sanguivoria are a few of the disease that develop into full-blown Vampirism. Lycanthropy functions similarly, although in some cases, consuming the blood of a lycanthrope can cause the disease to immediately take effect.

Morrowind has the Corprus Disease which will either turn you into an Eldritch Abomination or a Body Horror Technically Living Zombie depending on the will of its creator and the Blight which kills plants, drives animals insane, causes health problems in humanoids, and can carry Corprus.

In addition, there are some more mundane illnesses "Swamp Fever," "Jitters," et cetera that can be contracted as well, but they are simpler to cure.

The Zerg from Starcraft , obsessed with assimilation into the swarm, pretty much embody this trope. The Contaminators, mutants spawned from Tleilaxu Flesh Vats.

They carry a lethal virus capable of turning humans into additional Contaminators. There's also the non-human variant called the Tleilaxu Leeches, biogenetic tanks that create replicas of themselves by implanting larva in enemy vehicles, which damages the host vehicle until it's destroyed before hatching into another Leech.

The Darkspawn taint in the Dragon Age series. The Darkspawn spread this disease wherever they go, turning any living things that are exposed to it into horrible monsters.

Yes, this includes people. The taint unites the Darkspawn in a primitive Hive Mind , though only an Archdemon, a draconic Old God corrupted by the Darkspawn taint, can unite all of the Darkspawn hordes.

That's right, this particular Virus can corrupt gods. Both System Shock and its sequel feature enemies infected by The Virus.

In Strife , the virus arrived via a massive comet impact. Those who weren't wiped out begin to mutate, hearing the voice of an alien monster and causing their bodies to rot.

The Evil Empire Religion of Evil that worships the monster uses cybernetics to maintain their self-destructing bodies.

The A-Virus in Disgaea 4 is a humorous take on the trope, but nonetheless horrifying in its own way. Everyone gets better in the end, though.

More information about the virus alert is available Beste Spielothek in Sankt Egidien finden. Qualifikation em 2019 gruppen tell me about the virus. Reverso beitreten Registrieren Einloggen Mit Facebook einloggen. Wir wissen von dem Virus. Beispiele für die Übersetzung ist 5 euro psc dem Virus ansehen 2 Beispiele mit Übereinstimmungen. Threatened by total blindness, patients now have hope for a cure thanks to em 2019 türkei gegen kroatien new genetic therapy with the injection of a genetically modified virus. We know about the virus. Es öffnet sich ein Browser-Fenster, in dem alle in der Virenenzyklopädie verfügbaren Informationen zu diesem Virus angezeigt werden. Dank dem Echtzeitverlauf und der Nähe zu realen Messenger-Apps fühlt man sich daher schnell in das Geschehen hinein. You heard about the virus? Von dem Virus gehört? Übersetzung für "about the virus" im Deutsch. Jeffrey Goines said it was my idea about the virus. Der Film Beste Spielothek in Schimmendorf finden die dreijährige Studie und erzählt dabei 20 Jahre wissenschaftliche Forschung Schritt für Schritt nach - bis zu jenem Tag, an dem erste Erfolge bei den Patienten zu erkennen sind. Marburg virusfirst discovered Beste Spielothek in Gullenbach findenattracted widespread press attention in April for an outbreak in Angola. Though the resulting personality will still have their own free will, the fact that it now shares the goals of the psion makes it incredibly effective. High abundance of viruses found in aquatic environments. You can obtain a vaccine to protect yourself from infection for 6 hours after it's administrated. A legendary creature card from the Innistrad set, Olivia Voldaren ran nfl super bowl 2019, is a classic infectious vampire: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine. Jupp ja of veterinary medicine. The classification of organisms at the edge of life, or problems with virus systematics. Smallpox and the Native American. When the heroes ask the program what it wants, it replies with a list of body parts. This is what happens to you in one ending in Final. Its role in immunity is complex; it eventually stops the viruses from reproducing by killing karamba mobile casino infected cell and the virus close neighbours. It gets worse since anyone Beste Spielothek in Fechheim finden knew those victims in life, be it parents, friends, siblings, etc. Diseases can alter your behavior in ways to spread themselves, but you may not Beste Spielothek in Sankt Egidien finden it. Under the right circumstances, The Virus gives a human being the powers to fly around and kill stuff with viral blades and whips and shit movember casino in the Maddy Johnson | Euro Palace Casino Blog - Part 5 of the main character ; otherwise, you'll turn into a mindless, shambling, living zombie or a mutant with augmented speed and strength as in the case of a lot of New Yorkers. Woe is the grammar Nazi! Fluorescent signal amplification of carbocyanine dyes using engineered viral nanoparticles. As casino öffnungszeiten fronleichnam, the guy whom the Hippocratic Oath is named after. The virus-first hypothesis contravened the definition of viruses in that they require host cells. The Virus changes humans into demons. Beste Spielothek in Gelenberg finden are found wherever there is life and have probably existed since living cells first evolved. Das größte casino der welt doku classification places viruses into seven groups:. Plant Viral Vectors for Protein Expression. Novel functions of B cells. The curse in the Ju-on franchise and its American counterpart, The Grudge and its sequels operates this way. By using this site, you Beste Spielothek in Rickling finden to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Even worse is that individuals can spontaneously develop prions! He ends up turning into a Big Red Devil instead, and ends up being the star attraction.

The virus -

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Some viruses cause no apparent changes to the infected cell. Cells in which the virus is latent and inactive show few signs of infection and often function normally.

This is often the case with herpes viruses. Viruses are by far the most abundant biological entities on Earth and they outnumber all the others put together.

Other viruses, such as rabies virus, can infect different species of mammals and are said to have a broad range.

Classification seeks to describe the diversity of viruses by naming and grouping them on the basis of similarities.

Viruses were grouped according to their shared properties not those of their hosts and the type of nucleic acid forming their genomes.

The system proposed by Lwoff, Horne and Tournier was never fully accepted by the ICTV because small genome size viruses and their high rate of mutation makes it difficult to determine their ancestry beyond order.

As such, the Baltimore classification is used to supplement the more traditional hierarchy. The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses ICTV developed the current classification system and wrote guidelines that put a greater weight on certain virus properties to maintain family uniformity.

A unified taxonomy a universal system for classifying viruses has been established. Only a small part of the total diversity of viruses has been studied.

As of , nine orders, families, 46 subfamilies , genera, and 4, species of viruses have been defined by the ICTV. The Baltimore classification of viruses is based on the mechanism of mRNA production.

Viruses must generate mRNAs from their genomes to produce proteins and replicate themselves, but different mechanisms are used to achieve this in each virus family.

This classification places viruses into seven groups:. As an example of viral classification, the chicken pox virus, varicella zoster VZV , belongs to the order Herpesvirales , family Herpesviridae , subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae , and genus Varicellovirus.

The complete set of viruses in an organism or habitat is called the virome ; for example, all human viruses constitute the human virome.

Examples of common human diseases caused by viruses include the common cold , influenza, chickenpox , and cold sores. The relative ability of viruses to cause disease is described in terms of virulence.

Other diseases are under investigation to discover if they have a virus as the causative agent, such as the possible connection between human herpesvirus 6 HHV6 and neurological diseases such as multiple sclerosis and chronic fatigue syndrome.

Viruses have different mechanisms by which they produce disease in an organism, which depends largely on the viral species.

Mechanisms at the cellular level primarily include cell lysis, the breaking open and subsequent death of the cell.

In multicellular organisms , if enough cells die, the whole organism will start to suffer the effects. Although viruses cause disruption of healthy homeostasis , resulting in disease, they may exist relatively harmlessly within an organism.

An example would include the ability of the herpes simplex virus , which causes cold sores, to remain in a dormant state within the human body.

This is called latency [] and is a characteristic of the herpes viruses, including Epstein—Barr virus, which causes glandular fever, and varicella zoster virus , which causes chickenpox and shingles.

Most people have been infected with at least one of these types of herpes virus. Some viruses can cause lifelong or chronic infections, where the viruses continue to replicate in the body despite the host's defence mechanisms.

People chronically infected are known as carriers, as they serve as reservoirs of infectious virus. Viral epidemiology is the branch of medical science that deals with the transmission and control of virus infections in humans.

Transmission of viruses can be vertical, which means from mother to child, or horizontal, which means from person to person. Examples of vertical transmission include hepatitis B virus and HIV, where the baby is born already infected with the virus.

Horizontal transmission is the most common mechanism of spread of viruses in populations. Transmission can occur when: The rate or speed of transmission of viral infections depends on factors that include population density, the number of susceptible individuals, i.

Epidemiology is used to break the chain of infection in populations during outbreaks of viral diseases. It is important to find the source, or sources, of the outbreak and to identify the virus.

Once the virus has been identified, the chain of transmission can sometimes be broken by vaccines. When vaccines are not available, sanitation and disinfection can be effective.

Often, infected people are isolated from the rest of the community, and those that have been exposed to the virus are placed in quarantine.

If outbreaks spread worldwide, they are called pandemics. Native American populations were devastated by contagious diseases, in particular, smallpox , brought to the Americas by European colonists.

The damage done by this disease significantly aided European attempts to displace and conquer the native population. A pandemic is a worldwide epidemic.

The flu pandemic , which lasted until , was a category 5 influenza pandemic caused by an unusually severe and deadly influenza A virus. The victims were often healthy young adults, in contrast to most influenza outbreaks, which predominantly affect juvenile, elderly, or otherwise-weakened patients.

Most researchers believe that HIV originated in sub-Saharan Africa during the 20th century; [] it is now a pandemic, with an estimated Several highly lethal viral pathogens are members of the Filoviridae.

Filoviruses are filament-like viruses that cause viral hemorrhagic fever , and include ebolaviruses and marburgviruses. Marburg virus , first discovered in , attracted widespread press attention in April for an outbreak in Angola.

The worst and most recent one is the West Africa epidemic. Viruses are an established cause of cancer in humans and other species.

Viral cancers occur only in a minority of infected persons or animals. Cancer viruses come from a range of virus families, including both RNA and DNA viruses, and so there is no single type of " oncovirus " an obsolete term originally used for acutely transforming retroviruses.

The development of cancer is determined by a variety of factors such as host immunity [] and mutations in the host. The most recently discovered human cancer virus is a polyomavirus Merkel cell polyomavirus that causes most cases of a rare form of skin cancer called Merkel cell carcinoma.

The body's first line of defence against viruses is the innate immune system. This comprises cells and other mechanisms that defend the host from infection in a non-specific manner.

This means that the cells of the innate system recognise, and respond to, pathogens in a generic way, but, unlike the adaptive immune system , it does not confer long-lasting or protective immunity to the host.

RNA interference is an important innate defence against viruses. When such a virus infects a cell, it releases its RNA molecule or molecules, which immediately bind to a protein complex called a dicer that cuts the RNA into smaller pieces.

Rotaviruses have evolved to avoid this defence mechanism by not uncoating fully inside the cell, and releasing newly produced mRNA through pores in the particle's inner capsid.

Their genomic dsRNA remains protected inside the core of the virion. When the adaptive immune system of a vertebrate encounters a virus, it produces specific antibodies that bind to the virus and often render it non-infectious.

This is called humoral immunity. Two types of antibodies are important. The first, called IgM , is highly effective at neutralising viruses but is produced by the cells of the immune system only for a few weeks.

The second, called IgG , is produced indefinitely. The presence of IgM in the blood of the host is used to test for acute infection, whereas IgG indicates an infection sometime in the past.

Antibodies can continue to be an effective defence mechanism even after viruses have managed to gain entry to the host cell. A protein that is in cells, called TRIM21 , can attach to the antibodies on the surface of the virus particle.

This primes the subsequent destruction of the virus by the enzymes of the cell's proteosome system. A second defence of vertebrates against viruses is called cell-mediated immunity and involves immune cells known as T cells.

The body's cells constantly display short fragments of their proteins on the cell's surface, and, if a T cell recognises a suspicious viral fragment there, the host cell is destroyed by killer T cells and the virus-specific T-cells proliferate.

Cells such as the macrophage are specialists at this antigen presentation. This is a hormone produced by the body when viruses are present.

Its role in immunity is complex; it eventually stops the viruses from reproducing by killing the infected cell and its close neighbours.

Not all virus infections produce a protective immune response in this way. HIV evades the immune system by constantly changing the amino acid sequence of the proteins on the surface of the virion.

This is known as "escape mutation" as the viral epitopes escape recognition by the host immune response. These persistent viruses evade immune control by sequestration, blockade of antigen presentation , cytokine resistance, evasion of natural killer cell activities, escape from apoptosis , and antigenic shift.

Because viruses use vital metabolic pathways within host cells to replicate, they are difficult to eliminate without using drugs that cause toxic effects to host cells in general.

The most effective medical approaches to viral diseases are vaccinations to provide immunity to infection, and antiviral drugs that selectively interfere with viral replication.

Vaccination is a cheap and effective way of preventing infections by viruses. Vaccines were used to prevent viral infections long before the discovery of the actual viruses.

Their use has resulted in a dramatic decline in morbidity illness and mortality death associated with viral infections such as polio , measles , mumps and rubella.

Such viruses are called attenuated. Live vaccines can be dangerous when given to people with a weak immunity who are described as immunocompromised , because in these people, the weakened virus can cause the original disease.

These vaccines use only the capsid proteins of the virus. Hepatitis B vaccine is an example of this type of vaccine. Antiviral drugs are often nucleoside analogues fake DNA building-blocks , which viruses mistakenly incorporate into their genomes during replication.

The life-cycle of the virus is then halted because the newly synthesised DNA is inactive. This is because these analogues lack the hydroxyl groups, which, along with phosphorus atoms, link together to form the strong "backbone" of the DNA molecule.

This is called DNA chain termination. Aciclovir is one of the oldest and most frequently prescribed antiviral drugs. HIV is dependent on a proteolytic enzyme called the HIV-1 protease for it to become fully infectious.

There is a large class of drugs called protease inhibitors that inactivate this enzyme. Hepatitis C is caused by an RNA virus.

There is now an effective treatment that uses the nucleoside analogue drug ribavirin combined with interferon. Viruses infect all cellular life and, although viruses occur universally, each cellular species has its own specific range that often infect only that species.

Viruses are important pathogens of livestock. Diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease and bluetongue are caused by viruses.

Canine parvovirus is caused by a small DNA virus and infections are often fatal in pups. There are many types of plant virus, but often they cause only a loss of yield , and it is not economically viable to try to control them.

Plant viruses are often spread from plant to plant by organisms , known as vectors. These are normally insects, but some fungi, nematode worms , and single-celled organisms have been shown to be vectors.

When control of plant virus infections is considered economical, for perennial fruits, for example, efforts are concentrated on killing the vectors and removing alternate hosts such as weeds.

Plants have elaborate and effective defence mechanisms against viruses. One of the most effective is the presence of so-called resistance R genes.

Each R gene confers resistance to a particular virus by triggering localised areas of cell death around the infected cell, which can often be seen with the unaided eye as large spots.

This stops the infection from spreading. Plant virus particles or virus-like particles VLPs have applications in both biotechnology and nanotechnology.

The capsids of most plant viruses are simple and robust structures and can be produced in large quantities either by the infection of plants or by expression in a variety of heterologous systems.

Plant virus particles can be modified genetically and chemically to encapsulate foreign material and can be incorporated into supramolecular structures for use in biotechnology.

Within a short amount of time, in some cases just minutes, bacterial polymerase starts translating viral mRNA into protein. These proteins go on to become either new virions within the cell, helper proteins, which help assembly of new virions, or proteins involved in cell lysis.

Viral enzymes aid in the breakdown of the cell membrane, and, in the case of the T4 phage , in just over twenty minutes after injection over three hundred phages could be released.

The major way bacteria defend themselves from bacteriophages is by producing enzymes that destroy foreign DNA. These enzymes, called restriction endonucleases , cut up the viral DNA that bacteriophages inject into bacterial cells.

Some viruses replicate within archaea: These enable archaea to retain sections of viral DNA, which are then used to target and eliminate subsequent infections by the virus using a process similar to RNA interference.

The organic molecules released from the dead bacterial cells stimulate fresh bacterial and algal growth, in a process known as the viral shunt.

In January , scientists reported that million viruses, mainly of marine origin, are deposited daily from the Earth 's atmosphere onto every square meter of the planet's surface, as the result of a global atmospheric stream of viruses, circulating above the weather system, but below the altitude of usual airline travel, distributing viruses around the planet.

Like any organism, marine mammals are susceptible to viral infections. In and , thousands of harbour seals were killed in Europe by phocine distemper virus.

Viruses are an important natural means of transferring genes between different species, which increases genetic diversity and drives evolution. Viruses are important to the study of molecular and cell biology as they provide simple systems that can be used to manipulate and investigate the functions of cells.

Geneticists often use viruses as vectors to introduce genes into cells that they are studying. This is useful for making the cell produce a foreign substance, or to study the effect of introducing a new gene into the genome.

In similar fashion, virotherapy uses viruses as vectors to treat various diseases, as they can specifically target cells and DNA.

It shows promising use in the treatment of cancer and in gene therapy. Eastern European scientists have used phage therapy as an alternative to antibiotics for some time, and interest in this approach is increasing, because of the high level of antibiotic resistance now found in some pathogenic bacteria.

Industrial processes have been recently developed using viral vectors and a number of pharmaceutical proteins are currently in pre-clinical and clinical trials.

Virotherapy involves the use of genetically modified viruses to treat diseases. Talimogene laherparepvec T-VEC , for example, is a modified herpes simplex virus that has had a gene, which is required for viruses to replicate in healthy cells, deleted and replaced with a human gene GM-CSF that stimulates immunity.

When this virus infects cancer cells, it destroys them and in doing so the presence the GM-CSF gene attracts dendritic cells from the surrounding tissues of the body.

The dendritic cells process the dead cancer cells and present components of them to other cells of the immune system. Current trends in nanotechnology promise to make much more versatile use of viruses.

From the viewpoint of a materials scientist, viruses can be regarded as organic nanoparticles. Their surface carries specific tools designed to cross the barriers of their host cells.

The size and shape of viruses, and the number and nature of the functional groups on their surface, is precisely defined.

As such, viruses are commonly used in materials science as scaffolds for covalently linked surface modifications. A particular quality of viruses is that they can be tailored by directed evolution.

The powerful techniques developed by life sciences are becoming the basis of engineering approaches towards nanomaterials, opening a wide range of applications far beyond biology and medicine.

Because of their size, shape, and well-defined chemical structures, viruses have been used as templates for organising materials on the nanoscale.

In this application, the virus particles separate the fluorescent dyes used for signalling to prevent the formation of non-fluorescent dimers that act as quenchers.

Many viruses can be synthesised de novo "from scratch" and the first synthetic virus was created in That is, they contain all the necessary information to produce new viruses.

This technology is now being used to investigate novel vaccine strategies. As of November [update] , the full-length genome sequences of different viruses, including smallpox, are publicly available in an online database maintained by the National Institutes of Health.

The ability of viruses to cause devastating epidemics in human societies has led to the concern that viruses could be weaponised for biological warfare.

Further concern was raised by the successful recreation of the infamous influenza virus in a laboratory. Smallpox virus devastated numerous societies throughout history before its eradication.

There are only two centres in the world that are authorised by the WHO to keep stocks of smallpox virus: Thus, much of the modern human population has almost no established resistance to smallpox, and would be vulnerable to the virus.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the type of pathogen. For the type of malware, see Computer virus.

For other uses, see Virus disambiguation. Type of non-cellular infectious agent. For a more accessible and less technical introduction to this topic, see Introduction to viruses.

History of virology and Social history of viruses. Structure of tobacco mosaic virus: RNA coiled in a helix of repeating protein sub-units.

Structure of icosahedral adenovirus. Electron micrograph of with a cartoon to show shape. Structure of chickenpox virus. They have a lipid envelope.

Structure of an icosahedral cowpea mosaic virus. Some bacteriophages inject their genomes into bacterial cells not to scale.

Ebola top and Marburg viruses bottom. Animal virus and Veterinary virology. Prevent Zika by avoiding mosquito bites.

Pregnancy Essential information about Zika for pregnant women and couples interested in conceiving. Areas with Risk of Zika See countries and territories where Zika is a risk.

For Healthcare Providers Up-to-date guidance, resources, and training for providers evaluating and caring for patients with Zika.

Reporting and Surveillance CDC has surveillance systems for collecting data on Zika virus, its spread, and its effects on pregnancies.

Mosquito Control Prevent the spread of Zika by controlling mosquitoes in and around your home and community.

Learn more More Like This. The Virus I The Sweet Life Day of Resurrection Edit Storyline A government conspiracy revisits mind control and takes it to new depths, beyond the days of MK Ultra.

Add the first question. Audible Download Audio Books.

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