Rennrad bis 1900

Jubei / 25.12.2017

rennrad bis 1900

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This is a Malvern Star. The bike is a mid-level model that was meant to be fast and tough but not as pretty or as light as the flagship Five-Star model.

The beautifully painted frame details appear to be the handiwork of Ken Dickie. Ken was an artist who lived in Melbourne and applied his brushwork to some of the coolest bicycles we have ever seen anywhere.

Ken worked with a steady hand, a great eye for details and a tremendous amount of patience. Despite the lack of brakes Jeff was still working on it when we took the photos , this is a road bike.

It had three or four gears to help even out hilly terrain and frame geometry that smoothed out rough roads and handled high speeds. The shifting system is cutting edge technology from Using two cables, the top-tube mounted lever would pull the derailleur, which dragged the chain sideways across the multiple freewheel cogs that were fitted to the rear wheel.

The Oppy, which was named after Hubert Opperman, was an improvement over the popular Cyclo standard derailleur of a few years earlier.

It looks like we have a 3-speed freewheel mounted on the Malvern, so with a 15 to 17 tooth spread you would have had it easy compared to your single-speed riding partners….

There are oil ports all over the bike. The shifting system is amazing. The paint is beautiful. The tubing must be awesome because the whole bike is really light.

Oh, and the name! In two spots around the head tube and one spot on top of the bottom bracket shell there are ports where you can add oil to the bearings housed within.

On the seat tube there is a port that can hold about 4 ounces of chain oil. At the bottom of this reservoir there is a spigot that can be rotated to drip lubricant right onto the the chain.

You could even operate this feature as you pedaled! The Osgear was light yet sturdy, and fairly simple to operate.

Fitted to the chainstay is a cable operated guide arm that moves the chain right or left across the three sprockets. If you were one of our commuters, your could make your bike look like it had been ridden through a war zone in about a week.

Get from school to athletic ground quicker, do errands in half the time, tour the country for miles around. The Iver Johnson bicycle develops great leg, stomach and back muscles.

I can make deliveries! You know, like at the Madison Square Garden six-day race. If the sales pitch was successful, that boy would have quite a prize.

This Iver Johnson was special. It had aluminum fenders and a chainguard to protect clothing from road grime. There was a coaster brake hub on the back wheel, so you could enjoy speeding downhills unlike your friends on their fixed-gear bikes and still stop with confidence.

The wheels looked super fast. They were painted to resemble the wooden rims on an ultra-light racing machine, but were actually sturdy and less expensive metal rims.

The handlebars on the Pace Maker are really cool. Foot pegs on the front fork allowed the rider to enjoy speeding downhill on his fixed-gear bike.

Sure, without your feet on the pedals to control the speed there would be no brakes, but brakes are overrated.

Check out the old ad that we found for RaCycle bikes. The copy in old advertising and press releases like this one was so earnest. This Paramount Paramount was the racing division of the Schwinn line of bikes is an example of some of their finest work.

Built with the best materials available at the time, the bike tips the scale at a respectable 18 pounds. Master frame builder Oscar Wastyn brazed most of the Paramounts from this era, and his design touches abound, like the open-ended seat stays and the simple and elegant lug work.

Proprietary Schwinn-labeled parts make up the component group, with silky-smooth hubs and headset, and a light and fairly stiff steel crankset.

Research and development in this era may have actually been trial and error. There were some star athlete endorsements as well. Instead of welded joints like we know today, Caminade used socketed joints and glued and pegged each tube into place.

Over seventy years have passed by, and this bike is still rideable although a bit creaky. The tubing is heptagon shaped, and in places it is drilled out to save weight!

A high-tech wonder from the thirties that weighs less than most modern bikes at just 15 pounds. This old bike was used for randonneuring or cyclo-touring by a Seattle man named Tony Soberalski.

Tony, a pioneering enthusiast, helped establish randonneuring as a thing to do in the Seattle area. Everyone receives equal recognition regardless of their finish.

The distance is the thing, not the speed. The weather can change dramatically over these long events, so fenders and lights are common accessories.

Nothing more tried and maybe still true than 80 year old parts. Four gears seems just about right! Built by the Great Western Manufacturing Company of LaPorte, Indiana, the bike showcases some nice artistic touches and fine manufacturing skill.

Great Western became a bike company in when four small builders combined their labor and capital into one.

The merger made a large and successful bike company that continued until about Modern bike companies know this aesthetic-design-as-product-improvement tactic really well.

The American Star was designed with the smaller wheel in the front to avoid the tendency found in other high wheelers that have smaller trailing wheels to pitch forward.

The Star pedals ratchet up and down around a flywheel, a design that also incorporates two different gear options.

While a Star rider was less likely to pitch over the front wheel when encountering a road obstacle, care had to be taken not to fall over backward.

Gerard, living in New Jersey, borrowed an original Star from the Smithville museum. He then proceeded to replicate every last piece of the bicycle using centuries-old blacksmithing techniques.

We have a story about that. The reversed fork keeps the bike stable at the extremely high speeds associated with motor paced events.

How did it get to Bainbridge Island? Otis was a cycling coach and blues musician who lived in Boulder, Colorado. The bike was displayed on a wall in her house on Kallgren avenue until the day of the Nisqually earthquake, when it fell off the wall and the wooden rims got damaged.

Not only did Jeff have the year-old-odd-sized rims with which to fix the bike, he had a matching Boogmans stayer built in the same year!

Quite a trip for an old bike to make to meet up with one of its dozen-or-so sibblings! One of the finest exhibitions of motor-paced bike racing that has been seen in Melbourne was given by the German Franz Duelberg at the third board track cycling meeting at the Exhibition on Saturday night.

That creepy village in The Prisoner T. To mount one of these, you used the little step just above the rear wheel and hopped up onto the saddle.

The large wheel and strong gyroscopic effect actually made these pretty easy to ride around on, as long as you paid attention. High speeds and descents were pretty scary.

Why ride a high-wheel bike? These dinosaurs went extinct with the development of three great leaps in technology. Second, the development of roller chains made the pedaling action of safety bikes smooth and efficient.

Lastly, pneumatic tires made it so that small-wheeled bikes could float above the road bumps in cushioned comfort.

Tricycle racers too, apparently. A bit of a bike nut, err, trike nut, Mr. Weaver built this magnificent racing tricycle for himself.

Riding on the left side of a crowned road would be really tough without a differential or with the right wheel propelling the trike.

Look at this 85 year old steel tricycle and guess the weight. Would you believe that it tips our scale at only 21 pounds?

That milestone is still in place today. We just learned an interesting note about Mr. The wavy tubing, a Hetchins trademark, was said to make the bike ride more smoothly over rough roads.

The head tube badge on this bike, an ornate Hetchins logo, incorporates the shield of the city of London in the design.

Those fancy tubing joints would come standard on Hetchins frames about a decade later. Curved tubes and ornate lugwork were only part of their musically inspired creations.

The only nods to utility are the fender mounts and light bracket. Unfortunately it only had a single pulley, so the total gear difference could only be about six teeth.

The shift cable runs up and along the top tube, which puts the lever in a nice convenient spot. Check out the head tube lugs that wrap around the steerer tubes like chrome fingers, holding the tube in place.

This bike is a Wastyn. Emil Wastyn, that is. The father to the original Schwinn Paramount line of racing bikes. A note to amateur bike collectors out there: Notice the BSA head badge and frame sticker?

A lot of people would assume that this bicycle was in fact built by Birmingham Small Arms. Not the case here.

Just like with Huffy decals on a brand new Serotta, you sometimes have to look past the labels to figure out where a bicycle originated. Born a Mead Ranger bicycle in Born in Chicago, but ready to ride anywhere!

You would spend the next few decades hanging from the rafters, trading stories with an old wooden canoe. Then one day you were roughly woken from a nap and brought into the work room at Classic Cycle.

You were being tuned! You are a display bike now, not a rider. Before you knew what happened you were being crammed into a cardboard box and loaded onto a UPS truck.

This is no way to be treated! Unpacked and reassembled in Colorado, this young fella starts riding around on you. Is the air here a bit thin?

First ten miles, then thirty. Look at those hills! There are some old timers like yourself, along with some of those young upstarts like those you met back in the Classic Cycle storage room.

They all look excited and freshly overhauled, some with new tires even. Someone fires a pistol and that young fella starts you rolling.

Ten miles on fresh pavement. Twenty miles down a long descent. At thirty miles there was a bit of gravel, just like in the old days.

On a long stretch of gravel after seventy miles you start to loose your dentures er, axle nuts. That crazy young fella catches them just in time and tightens them back on.

Finally all of the nonsense comes to an end, and the young fella stops pedalling and gets off your aching saddle.

Heck, you think, wait until I tell all of the new bikes back at Classic Cycle. All smug with their carbon fiber and high technology. This racing bike saw hard mile after mile in its years of service.

Raced, crashed, trained on and played with by a cyclist named Bill Honeman, it served with distinction. Willie broke a lot of ground for other cyclists to follow.

He was the first American to wear a stars-and-stripes jersey as the national champion before Willie they just draped a flag over the riders shoulders at the podium ceremony.

Willie also lobbied for head protection for his fellow professional riders ineffective as the available helmets were at the time , and was the first to regularly wear a helmet outside of motorpaced events.

They developed a truss-bridge style frameset. This particular bike was owned by a fellow named Barney Winters, and it came with all the goodies.

Thick enamel paint, bright nickel plating, and a full complement of Chater-Lea components. Sometimes the most beautiful aspect of an old racing bike is the mileage that it proudly displays.

Like most of the Brennan bikes in the museum collection, this one has the wrap-around bands on the head tube, and delicate-looking but not actually delicate seat and chain stays.

The Brennan frame geometry made extremely long days in the saddle tolerable, and the predictable handling kept Frank safe and upright when he was exhausted or in the midst of the mayhem.

This was the bike he used during filming. The unusual design is both lighter and more structurally sound than appearances would suggest. This particular bike was built in by the Cheltenham bicycle company, located about 50 kilometers from the original Pedersen factory.

The fork tubes and seat stays were made with stout oval tubing, all to resist the twisting forces that Alf could generate.

Pop Brennan made custom handlebars in a shape that Goullet prefered, and springy wooden rims spun everything up to speed.

Cycling Hall of Fame. Alf was a superstar. A real winner off the bike as well, Alf retired from cycling in and lived in good health and prosperity to the ripe old age of Louis and this bike could be seen competing in motorpaced events all around the east coast during that time.

The Newark, Nutley, and Coney Island velodromes were home turf. A bike that was built to be ridden behind a derny or motorcycle driver in motorpaced events.

The reversed fork and smaller front wheel makes the bike handle like a shopping cart, it just wants to go straight ahead. This is important, since the speeds involved in most motorpaced events average around fifty miles an hour.

This girls bike from is not the most spectacular of the Elgin models that distinction belongs to the Blue Bird or the Four-Star Deluxe , but it does have some eye-catching features.

A very active amatuer racer on the east coast, Tommy specialized in long distance timed events and road races.

He raced in pretty much every bike race the Unione Sportiva Italiana held between and , and set numerous records while doing so.

Fabulous features include BSA drum brake hubs, which were built to stop reliably regardless of the girth of Daisy and her boyfriend.

The generator light system on our bike was added more recently, but there is a fork mount designed to carry oil lamps or early battery powered lights.

Full fenders, a bell, Dunlop tires ours have since rotted away , and cellulose bar wrap made this bike top of the line. The funky design pulls the cogs side to side under a stationary derailleur.

The Trivelox unfortunately did not withstand the test of time. If you can imagine holding a pen over a piece of paper, and writing by moving the paper underneath it, you can understand the limitations of this system.

The BSA components and beech wood rims were as fast as anything at the time. This bike was raced hard throughout the decades, and was quite a basketcase before it was restored.

Dented and bent tubing are now straight. Faded and chipped paint is fresh again. We have a few Appelhans racing bikes in the museum.

The lugs are neatly detailed with gold pinstriping, the finish and components are original and in excellent shape, and the bike is not nearly as battle-scarred as some of our other surviving Appelhans machines.

They were the keepers of secret old-world bike knowledge and lore, and cycling advice given by a Juner brother was treated like it was gold-plated.

Gus may not have had the success on the bike that his brothers did Adolph won the Tour of Somerville and Oscar was a successful six-day track racer , but he certainly was a big influence on his brothers, and in turn, they fostered thousands of aspiring cyclists.

This particular bike came out of C. While the construction methods used for the frame are fairly simple and unadorned, the bike came out at a feathery weight and has great ride characteristics particularly for a bike of this vintage.

With the way that star athlete endorsements work, this was most certainly a popular bike for C. Born in Victoria B.

The couple dozen bikes that he built were all well engineered for the rough roads of the time with long wheelbases and extremely raked forks.

Worthington Longfellow Mitten was quite the cyclist himself before he took up the torch. There are some great details on this Monark. Check out the art deco design on the handlebar stem.

The kickstand folds up into the rear fender, and the wire laced into the rear fender acts as a guard to keep skirts and dresses from getting stuck in the wheel.

This bike was made by Lance Claudel late in the s, at a time when he was apprenticing for Willy Appelhans. A durable three-speed hub gave the rider a few gears to choose from, at a time when road racers typically toughed it out with a single speed.

A shift lever up on the handlebars must have made this cyclist the envy of his friends. Mickey, whose first name was actually Nick a race announcer got it wrong, and the nickname stuck , was a native of Montclair, New Jersey.

Bicycling Hall of Fame, as well as in our museum. Needing reliable handling and fast acceleration, Mickey employed both Appelhans and Brennan racing bikes to do the job for him.

Apparently Mickey was an impressive cyclist. Check out this excerpt we found from the Sydney Morning Herald, dated February 15, Mickey Franciose in Sydney!

The American Ex-Amateur cyclist, who has raced with success at the Melbourne exhibition track since he came to Australia two or three months ago, arrived in Sydney and had some training at the sports arena yesterday.

Franciose is about 20 years of age, and is a splendidly built athlete. He rides in a position similar to that of Francis Faure, the French rider who was in Sydney last summer, but seems to stretch out more to reach his pedals….

Frank Bartell set the human-powered land speed record on this bike in This bike started life as an Appelhans track bike.

The front chainring has 84 teeth counting the skip-tooth spaces , and the back cog would have been a 6 tooth for the record attempt. Frank used it hard, and it endured many crashes on the way to a half-dozen six-day track race wins.

Sometime around Pop Brennan replaced the seat stays on the bike. She was good at it. This Silver King model M would have made you the envy of the neighborhood.

The aluminum frame made this bike lighter than every other steel balloon tire bike. It has a built-in Seiss headlight and horn the extra tube on the frame houses the batteries , steering lock, rack, and a massive rear kickstand.

A fully enclosed chainguard kept the oil on the chain from attacking your pants. The rod actuated brakes with part of the mechanism housed within the handlebars provided reliable stopping with little maintenance.

Built by an unknown manufacturer, this is the missing link in the evolution of the bicycle. This bike design comes from a time when various designers were independently moving away from the hobby-horse style velocipedes of the s to the direct-drive Penny farthings of the s and 80s, to the safety bicycle design that stayed with us until today.

Most likely this bike was built around and is one of the first chain-driven bicycles in existence. This is one of our favorites in the museum collection.

To use the gears, the rider would simply reach down to the lever and move it forward, releasing some of the chain tension.

Next, he would back-pedal while pushing on the chain with his right hand. The chain would jump to the next cog over, and then the rider would take the slack back out of the chain by moving the lever rearward again.

Employing a direct-drive to the front wheel, the only way to make bicycles of this design faster was to make the front wheel bigger.

In a span of just a few years bicycles went from costing the average worker months of his salary to being a means of travel that anyone could afford.

Roadways were built or improved to help connect cities and make travel with these bikes easier. All sorts of inventions and technology leaped forward from these bicycles.

The cycling world in the early part of the twentieth century revolved around New York and New Jersey, not Paris or Milan.

Ernie raced for the Unione Sportiva Italiana cycling club, which was based in New York, and one of the biggest cycling clubs in the world at that time.

They were the Campagnolo of the day. Willy Appelhans was a builder in the Bronx, New York. First, we have no idea what your bike is worth without seeing it.

Serial numbers do not help. To make the appraisal more accurate, prepare the bike and take photos like you would if you were going to sell it.

Clean the bike, remove any broken or rough-looking accessories and put some air in the tires. Take pictures straight on in front of a blank background, and take close-up photos of areas that may generate interest or confusion.

Bikes are simply worth what someone else is willing to pay for them. You know more about your bike than we do. You know when you bought it, so you have a good idea of the age, and you know if it was a high-end racing model or a basic bike from Walmart.

Rarity rarely helps determine value. Popularity is no indicator either. Bikes that were sold in large numbers could fall into one of two camps.

You could have a bike that will never sell Schwinn Varsity because there are still thousands of them out there, or you could have a bike that will cause a bidding war Bridgestone MB-1 because people rode them into the ground and they want another one.

The bikes featured in this museum section are privately owned by Jeff Groman and Paul Johnson, as well as other employees and friends of Classic Cycle.

We display them in this space to share their beauty and showcase the skill and creativity that went into making them. This website is not intended to be a research archive.

A bike built today could be labeled a or model. It could be exactly the same as a model, and may not get sold until Just keep it to yourself.

To the serious bike collectors out there: Plenty of brand new bikes roll out the doors of modern bike shops sporting saddles or bottle cages that were new during the Reagan administration.

Likewise, this museum section is meant to be interesting and entertaining, and we would never let the facts get in the way of a good story. Museum Bikes Prior to Hand painted head tube badge.

Adjust them low and narrow or high and wide. Kelly adjustable handlebars, made in Cleveland. Sager saddle after years. Eccentric dropouts to adjust chain tension.

Paint details like this cover the bike. An adjustable stem made the fit custom. Lovely hand striping runs down the fork. In great condition after eighty years.

Not really a separate badge, but part of the head tube. Wooden rims and BSA components. Iver Johnson head badge.

Corbin-Duplex coaster brake hub. A well-preserved Troxel saddle. Technisch einwandfrei, optisch sehr guter gebrauchter Zustand mit oberflächlichen Lackschäden siehe Bilder.

Höhe Mitte Tretlager bis Oberkante Sattelrohr: Höhe Mitte Tretlager bis Mitte Sattelrohr: Alle Messungen wurden Mitte — Mitte durchgeführt.

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Rennrad Bis 1900 Video

Men's Sprint 1/16 Final Repechages - London 2012 Olympics Einfach mal links an den Büschen vorbei, dem Feldweg folgen und ganz neue Welten entdecken: Mit Beginn der casino ac Runde wird die Anzahl der verbleibenden noch zu fahrenden Runden auf einer Tafel in Huuuge casino codes der Ziellinie angezeigt. Eine im Radsport sonst völlig unübliche Besonderheit des Netent utdelningsdag 2019 sind kurze, enorm steile Passagen, die die Fahrer zum Absteigen und Tragen des Rades über das Hindernis torschützenliste em quali 2019. Doch wenn Rahmen oder Bremskörper bei 28 gewinnchance book of ra die Grenze setzen, ist die Vielseitigkeit doch em russland eingeschränkt. Veraltet nach Juni Auch wenn er anscheinend nicht der Erste mit dieser Idee war — bei ihm setzt sich der luftgefüllte Reifen durch und so kam es zu einer ganz neuen Art von Fahren. Ausgangspunkt der Rennrad-Tour ist in Gais. Müsing Ranger - Preis: So bewegt sich beispielsweise der Stack-to-Reach-Quotient im Bereich von 0,06 Punkten zwischen dem mit 1,48 am sportlichsten ausgelegten Votec und dem mit 1,54 tendenziell entspannteren Focus siehe auch Abschnitt Sitzplatz. Plötzlich kein lästiges Hindernis mehr, sondern willkommene Abwechslung! Nur Stevens und Cannondale verbauen aus Kostengründen noch mechanische TRPScheibenbremsen, die zwar günstiger und etwas leichter sind, aber einen deutlich unpräziseren Druckpunkt aufweisen. Wie immer, hatte es das neue Gefährt zunächst nicht ganz leicht. Es hatte einen indirekten Antrieb mit Kette, und durch unterschiedliche Zähnezahl konnte man die Übersetzung beeinflussen. Focus Paralane AL Für Euro gibt es Shimanos komplette. Nächster Beitrag Aktiv Radfahren: Weil die Leute schneller fahren wollten, wuchsen die Reifen und das klassische Hochrad entstand. Registriert seit Jun Ort home Beiträge http: In diesem Test ist quasi, ganz grob und vereinfachend gesagt, das Äquivalent der motorisierten VW-Golf-Klasse vertreten: Das Bergrad arbeitete mit einer kettenlosen Kraftübertragung mittels zweier Kegelradpaare mit langer Welle und war mit einer Gangschaltung und einem Schaltgestänge am Mittelrahmen ausgestattet.

1900 rennrad bis -

In anderen Projekten Commons. Tour Hauptmerkmale Dauer 5: Die etablierte Fahrradmarke Wartburg blieb aber als eingetragene Marke des Werks bis nachweislich bestehen. Radweg nutzen und wieder zurück zum Ausgangpunkt. Der Preis pro Fahrrad hat bei Mark gelegen. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Anfahrt in Google Maps. Chater Lea hubs, BSA wing nuts. Wundt developed the first comprehensive and uniform theory of the science of psychology. All sorts of inventions and technology leaped gold club casino slovenia from these bicycles. An item that has ball spiele online previously used. Patent numbers on Demon Master Slot Machine - Free Online Casino Game by Kajot steerer tube. All smug with their carbon fiber and high technology. Please enter a number less than or equal to 1. Add to watch list. Four gears seems just about right! Wundt mainly differentiated between four principles and explained them with pokemon karten erklärung that originate from the physiology of perception, the psychology of meaning, from apperception torschützenliste em quali 2019, emotion and motivation theory, and from cultural psychology and ethics. The internal consistency of Wundt's work from tobetween the main works and within the reworked editions, has repeatedly been discussed and been subject to differing assessments in parts.

Rennrad bis 1900 -

Im unteren Teil des Steuerkopfschildes fand sich üblicherweise die Modellnummer eingeschlagen. Focus Paralane AL Zwei Räder hintereinander sollen die Basis für ein Fortbewegungsmittel sein. Die ersten Querfeldein-Weltmeisterschaften fanden in Paris statt. Wie immer, hatte es das neue Gefährt zunächst nicht ganz leicht. Wenn die Pedale direkt mit der Achse verbunden sind — das war also eine Art frühzeitiges Fixie —, dann bestimmt der Radumfang die Übersetzung. Auf der Weltausstellung in Paris war eine Draisine mit Pedalantrieb zu sehen.

Otis was a cycling coach and blues musician who lived in Boulder, Colorado. The bike was displayed on a wall in her house on Kallgren avenue until the day of the Nisqually earthquake, when it fell off the wall and the wooden rims got damaged.

Not only did Jeff have the year-old-odd-sized rims with which to fix the bike, he had a matching Boogmans stayer built in the same year!

Quite a trip for an old bike to make to meet up with one of its dozen-or-so sibblings! One of the finest exhibitions of motor-paced bike racing that has been seen in Melbourne was given by the German Franz Duelberg at the third board track cycling meeting at the Exhibition on Saturday night.

That creepy village in The Prisoner T. To mount one of these, you used the little step just above the rear wheel and hopped up onto the saddle.

The large wheel and strong gyroscopic effect actually made these pretty easy to ride around on, as long as you paid attention. High speeds and descents were pretty scary.

Why ride a high-wheel bike? These dinosaurs went extinct with the development of three great leaps in technology. Second, the development of roller chains made the pedaling action of safety bikes smooth and efficient.

Lastly, pneumatic tires made it so that small-wheeled bikes could float above the road bumps in cushioned comfort. Tricycle racers too, apparently.

A bit of a bike nut, err, trike nut, Mr. Weaver built this magnificent racing tricycle for himself. Riding on the left side of a crowned road would be really tough without a differential or with the right wheel propelling the trike.

Look at this 85 year old steel tricycle and guess the weight. Would you believe that it tips our scale at only 21 pounds? That milestone is still in place today.

We just learned an interesting note about Mr. The wavy tubing, a Hetchins trademark, was said to make the bike ride more smoothly over rough roads.

The head tube badge on this bike, an ornate Hetchins logo, incorporates the shield of the city of London in the design.

Those fancy tubing joints would come standard on Hetchins frames about a decade later. Curved tubes and ornate lugwork were only part of their musically inspired creations.

The only nods to utility are the fender mounts and light bracket. Unfortunately it only had a single pulley, so the total gear difference could only be about six teeth.

The shift cable runs up and along the top tube, which puts the lever in a nice convenient spot. Check out the head tube lugs that wrap around the steerer tubes like chrome fingers, holding the tube in place.

This bike is a Wastyn. Emil Wastyn, that is. The father to the original Schwinn Paramount line of racing bikes. A note to amateur bike collectors out there: Notice the BSA head badge and frame sticker?

A lot of people would assume that this bicycle was in fact built by Birmingham Small Arms. Not the case here.

Just like with Huffy decals on a brand new Serotta, you sometimes have to look past the labels to figure out where a bicycle originated.

Born a Mead Ranger bicycle in Born in Chicago, but ready to ride anywhere! You would spend the next few decades hanging from the rafters, trading stories with an old wooden canoe.

Then one day you were roughly woken from a nap and brought into the work room at Classic Cycle. You were being tuned!

You are a display bike now, not a rider. Before you knew what happened you were being crammed into a cardboard box and loaded onto a UPS truck.

This is no way to be treated! Unpacked and reassembled in Colorado, this young fella starts riding around on you. Is the air here a bit thin? First ten miles, then thirty.

Look at those hills! There are some old timers like yourself, along with some of those young upstarts like those you met back in the Classic Cycle storage room.

They all look excited and freshly overhauled, some with new tires even. Someone fires a pistol and that young fella starts you rolling.

Ten miles on fresh pavement. Twenty miles down a long descent. At thirty miles there was a bit of gravel, just like in the old days.

On a long stretch of gravel after seventy miles you start to loose your dentures er, axle nuts. That crazy young fella catches them just in time and tightens them back on.

Finally all of the nonsense comes to an end, and the young fella stops pedalling and gets off your aching saddle. Heck, you think, wait until I tell all of the new bikes back at Classic Cycle.

All smug with their carbon fiber and high technology. This racing bike saw hard mile after mile in its years of service.

Raced, crashed, trained on and played with by a cyclist named Bill Honeman, it served with distinction.

Willie broke a lot of ground for other cyclists to follow. He was the first American to wear a stars-and-stripes jersey as the national champion before Willie they just draped a flag over the riders shoulders at the podium ceremony.

Willie also lobbied for head protection for his fellow professional riders ineffective as the available helmets were at the time , and was the first to regularly wear a helmet outside of motorpaced events.

They developed a truss-bridge style frameset. This particular bike was owned by a fellow named Barney Winters, and it came with all the goodies.

Thick enamel paint, bright nickel plating, and a full complement of Chater-Lea components. Sometimes the most beautiful aspect of an old racing bike is the mileage that it proudly displays.

Like most of the Brennan bikes in the museum collection, this one has the wrap-around bands on the head tube, and delicate-looking but not actually delicate seat and chain stays.

The Brennan frame geometry made extremely long days in the saddle tolerable, and the predictable handling kept Frank safe and upright when he was exhausted or in the midst of the mayhem.

This was the bike he used during filming. The unusual design is both lighter and more structurally sound than appearances would suggest.

This particular bike was built in by the Cheltenham bicycle company, located about 50 kilometers from the original Pedersen factory.

The fork tubes and seat stays were made with stout oval tubing, all to resist the twisting forces that Alf could generate.

Pop Brennan made custom handlebars in a shape that Goullet prefered, and springy wooden rims spun everything up to speed. Cycling Hall of Fame.

Alf was a superstar. A real winner off the bike as well, Alf retired from cycling in and lived in good health and prosperity to the ripe old age of Louis and this bike could be seen competing in motorpaced events all around the east coast during that time.

The Newark, Nutley, and Coney Island velodromes were home turf. A bike that was built to be ridden behind a derny or motorcycle driver in motorpaced events.

The reversed fork and smaller front wheel makes the bike handle like a shopping cart, it just wants to go straight ahead. This is important, since the speeds involved in most motorpaced events average around fifty miles an hour.

This girls bike from is not the most spectacular of the Elgin models that distinction belongs to the Blue Bird or the Four-Star Deluxe , but it does have some eye-catching features.

A very active amatuer racer on the east coast, Tommy specialized in long distance timed events and road races.

He raced in pretty much every bike race the Unione Sportiva Italiana held between and , and set numerous records while doing so.

Fabulous features include BSA drum brake hubs, which were built to stop reliably regardless of the girth of Daisy and her boyfriend.

The generator light system on our bike was added more recently, but there is a fork mount designed to carry oil lamps or early battery powered lights.

Full fenders, a bell, Dunlop tires ours have since rotted away , and cellulose bar wrap made this bike top of the line. The funky design pulls the cogs side to side under a stationary derailleur.

The Trivelox unfortunately did not withstand the test of time. If you can imagine holding a pen over a piece of paper, and writing by moving the paper underneath it, you can understand the limitations of this system.

The BSA components and beech wood rims were as fast as anything at the time. This bike was raced hard throughout the decades, and was quite a basketcase before it was restored.

Dented and bent tubing are now straight. Faded and chipped paint is fresh again. We have a few Appelhans racing bikes in the museum.

The lugs are neatly detailed with gold pinstriping, the finish and components are original and in excellent shape, and the bike is not nearly as battle-scarred as some of our other surviving Appelhans machines.

They were the keepers of secret old-world bike knowledge and lore, and cycling advice given by a Juner brother was treated like it was gold-plated.

Gus may not have had the success on the bike that his brothers did Adolph won the Tour of Somerville and Oscar was a successful six-day track racer , but he certainly was a big influence on his brothers, and in turn, they fostered thousands of aspiring cyclists.

This particular bike came out of C. While the construction methods used for the frame are fairly simple and unadorned, the bike came out at a feathery weight and has great ride characteristics particularly for a bike of this vintage.

With the way that star athlete endorsements work, this was most certainly a popular bike for C. Born in Victoria B. The couple dozen bikes that he built were all well engineered for the rough roads of the time with long wheelbases and extremely raked forks.

Worthington Longfellow Mitten was quite the cyclist himself before he took up the torch. There are some great details on this Monark. Check out the art deco design on the handlebar stem.

The kickstand folds up into the rear fender, and the wire laced into the rear fender acts as a guard to keep skirts and dresses from getting stuck in the wheel.

This bike was made by Lance Claudel late in the s, at a time when he was apprenticing for Willy Appelhans.

A durable three-speed hub gave the rider a few gears to choose from, at a time when road racers typically toughed it out with a single speed.

A shift lever up on the handlebars must have made this cyclist the envy of his friends. Mickey, whose first name was actually Nick a race announcer got it wrong, and the nickname stuck , was a native of Montclair, New Jersey.

Bicycling Hall of Fame, as well as in our museum. Needing reliable handling and fast acceleration, Mickey employed both Appelhans and Brennan racing bikes to do the job for him.

Apparently Mickey was an impressive cyclist. Check out this excerpt we found from the Sydney Morning Herald, dated February 15, Mickey Franciose in Sydney!

The American Ex-Amateur cyclist, who has raced with success at the Melbourne exhibition track since he came to Australia two or three months ago, arrived in Sydney and had some training at the sports arena yesterday.

Franciose is about 20 years of age, and is a splendidly built athlete. He rides in a position similar to that of Francis Faure, the French rider who was in Sydney last summer, but seems to stretch out more to reach his pedals….

Frank Bartell set the human-powered land speed record on this bike in This bike started life as an Appelhans track bike. The front chainring has 84 teeth counting the skip-tooth spaces , and the back cog would have been a 6 tooth for the record attempt.

Frank used it hard, and it endured many crashes on the way to a half-dozen six-day track race wins.

Sometime around Pop Brennan replaced the seat stays on the bike. She was good at it. This Silver King model M would have made you the envy of the neighborhood.

The aluminum frame made this bike lighter than every other steel balloon tire bike. It has a built-in Seiss headlight and horn the extra tube on the frame houses the batteries , steering lock, rack, and a massive rear kickstand.

A fully enclosed chainguard kept the oil on the chain from attacking your pants. The rod actuated brakes with part of the mechanism housed within the handlebars provided reliable stopping with little maintenance.

Built by an unknown manufacturer, this is the missing link in the evolution of the bicycle. This bike design comes from a time when various designers were independently moving away from the hobby-horse style velocipedes of the s to the direct-drive Penny farthings of the s and 80s, to the safety bicycle design that stayed with us until today.

Most likely this bike was built around and is one of the first chain-driven bicycles in existence. This is one of our favorites in the museum collection.

To use the gears, the rider would simply reach down to the lever and move it forward, releasing some of the chain tension.

Next, he would back-pedal while pushing on the chain with his right hand. The chain would jump to the next cog over, and then the rider would take the slack back out of the chain by moving the lever rearward again.

Employing a direct-drive to the front wheel, the only way to make bicycles of this design faster was to make the front wheel bigger.

In a span of just a few years bicycles went from costing the average worker months of his salary to being a means of travel that anyone could afford.

Roadways were built or improved to help connect cities and make travel with these bikes easier. All sorts of inventions and technology leaped forward from these bicycles.

The cycling world in the early part of the twentieth century revolved around New York and New Jersey, not Paris or Milan. Ernie raced for the Unione Sportiva Italiana cycling club, which was based in New York, and one of the biggest cycling clubs in the world at that time.

They were the Campagnolo of the day. Willy Appelhans was a builder in the Bronx, New York. First, we have no idea what your bike is worth without seeing it.

Serial numbers do not help. To make the appraisal more accurate, prepare the bike and take photos like you would if you were going to sell it.

Clean the bike, remove any broken or rough-looking accessories and put some air in the tires. Take pictures straight on in front of a blank background, and take close-up photos of areas that may generate interest or confusion.

Bikes are simply worth what someone else is willing to pay for them. You know more about your bike than we do.

You know when you bought it, so you have a good idea of the age, and you know if it was a high-end racing model or a basic bike from Walmart. Rarity rarely helps determine value.

Popularity is no indicator either. Bikes that were sold in large numbers could fall into one of two camps. You could have a bike that will never sell Schwinn Varsity because there are still thousands of them out there, or you could have a bike that will cause a bidding war Bridgestone MB-1 because people rode them into the ground and they want another one.

The bikes featured in this museum section are privately owned by Jeff Groman and Paul Johnson, as well as other employees and friends of Classic Cycle.

We display them in this space to share their beauty and showcase the skill and creativity that went into making them. This website is not intended to be a research archive.

A bike built today could be labeled a or model. It could be exactly the same as a model, and may not get sold until Just keep it to yourself.

To the serious bike collectors out there: Plenty of brand new bikes roll out the doors of modern bike shops sporting saddles or bottle cages that were new during the Reagan administration.

Likewise, this museum section is meant to be interesting and entertaining, and we would never let the facts get in the way of a good story.

Museum Bikes Prior to Hand painted head tube badge. Adjust them low and narrow or high and wide. Kelly adjustable handlebars, made in Cleveland.

Sager saddle after years. Eccentric dropouts to adjust chain tension. Paint details like this cover the bike. An adjustable stem made the fit custom.

Lovely hand striping runs down the fork. In great condition after eighty years. Not really a separate badge, but part of the head tube.

Wooden rims and BSA components. Iver Johnson head badge. Corbin-Duplex coaster brake hub. A well-preserved Troxel saddle. Not a reflector, but really nice looking.

Swoopy front end with headlight. Pedals with jewel reflectors. Original Schwinn Paramount grips. My bike is melting! Imagine how long it took to file and polish these.

Bicycle hub or cheese grater? Head badge or a coat of arms? Emil's Wastyn head badge. Front end with adjustable stem.

The knob damps the steering response. The original decal is too fragile to restore. Simple and smooth rear dropouts.

Chainstays of triangular tubing. Constructed for a powerful sprinter. Chater Lea hubs, BSA wing nuts.

The head badge lists the shop address. Pretty good condition for 85 years. Imagine the copper gleam from the stadium lights Adjustable stem, road bars.

Cyclo Twin Wire shifter. Cyclo twin wire derailleur. Modern shifting, pre war. Claud Butler head tube badge, headset oil port. The chain oiler flips up when not in use.

Fill the reservoir up with chain lube here. That little fork moves the chain side to side. Metal rims painted to look like wood.

An Iver Johnson was special. Aluminum chain guard and fenders. Bengal Special Racer headbadge. Splined bottom bracket, custom pedals.

Nickel plated racing stem and bars. We've seen month-old bike chains that look worse. Looks like modern fastback seat stays. Narrow front hub, open-crown fork.

Arnold Schwinn and Company top hat. Adjustable steel quill stem. Narrow sprinter saddle, open-ended seat stays. Similar decals on many early Schwinns.

An elegant crankset design. Head badge and chrome head tube. The Osgear chain tension arm. Cheese grater hubs and wingnuts. Pegged and glued tubing sockets.

Constrictor Osgear Super Champion or simply "Osgear". Looks pretty modern with sidepull brakes, aluminum tubing. Check out these jugs.

Wires pull in each direction. Sun Club head badge. Extra clothes, spare parts, and some food. Crown head tube badge.

Unusually high bars of the mid-teens. Nicely made Fauber crankset. There are actually two different gear ratios. Treadles attached to a flwheel.

The Capitol steps in The fork is supposed to be backward. A motor-paced track race. A big gear for extremely fast racing. Really neat chain stays. Pull the handle and the spoon slows the wheel.

The pedals could be moved to fit the rider better. Note the step just above the wheel. The saddle looks pretty comfortable. Patent numbers on the steerer tube.

Drive wheel on the left for traction on English roads. Wundt worked on, psychologically linked, and structured an immense amount of material.

The topics range from agriculture and trade, crafts and property, through gods, myths and Christianity, marriage and family, peoples and nations to self- education and self-awareness, science, the world and humanity.

Wundt recognized about 20 fundamental dynamic motives in cultural development. Motives frequently quoted in cultural development are: Other values and motives emerge in the areas of freedom and justice, war and peace, legal structures, state structures and forms of government; also regarding the development of a world view of culture, religion, state, traffic, and a worldwide political and social society.

In religious considerations, many of the values and motives i. Wundt saw examples of human self-education in walking upright, physical facilities and "an interaction in part forced upon people by external conditions and in part the result of voluntary culture".

In the interaction of human activity and the conditions of nature he saw a creative principle of culture right from the start; tools as cultural products of a second nature.

An interactive system of cause and effect, a system of purposes and thus values and reflexively from standards of one's own activities is formed according to the principles of one's own thinking.

In the Elemente der Völkerpsychologie The Elements of Cultural Psychology, Wundt sketched out four main levels of cultural development: The delineations were unclear and the depiction was greatly simplified.

Only this book was translated into English Elements of folk-psychology [55] , thus providing but a much abridged insight into Wundt's differentiated cultural psychology.

The Folk Psychology part of the title already demonstrates the low level of understanding. The term Kulturpsychologie would have been more fitting though psychological development theory of the mind would have expressed Wundt's intentions even better.

Wundt contributed to the state of neuropsychology as it existed at the time in three ways: Wundt considered attention and the control of attention an excellent example of the desirable combination of experimental psychological and neurophysiological research.

Wundt called for experimentation to localise the higher central nervous functions to be based on clear, psychologically-based research hypotheses because the questions could not be rendered precisely enough on the anatomical and physiological levels alone.

Wundt based his central theory of apperception on neuropsychological modelling from the 3rd edition of the Grundzüge onwards.

According to this, the hypothetical apperception centre in the frontal cerebral cortex that he described could interconnect sensory, motor, autonomic, cognitive, emotional and motivational process components [57] [58] Wundt thus provided the guiding principle of a primarily psychologically-oriented research programme on the highest integrative processes.

He is therefore a forerunner of current research on cognitive and emotional executive functions in the prefrontal cerebral cortex, and on hypothetical multimodal convergence zones in the network of cortical and limbic functions.

This concept of an interdisciplinary neuroscience is now taken for granted, but Wundt's contribution towards this development has almost been forgotten.

Sherrington repeatedly quotes Wundt's research on the physiology of the reflexes in his textbook, [59] but not Wundt's neuropsychological concepts [60].

While, on the one hand, there are the experimental methods, on the other hand, objective works and products in cultural development Objektivationen des menschlichen Geistes also offer up abundant material for comparative psychological analysis".

Psychology is an empirical science and must endeavour to achieve a systematic procedure, examination of results, and criticism of its methodology.

Thus self-observation must be trained and is only permissible under strict experimental control; Wundt decisively rejects naive introspection.

Wundt provided a standard definition of psychological experiments. Kant had argued against the assumption of the measurability of conscious processes and made a well-founded, if very short, criticism of the methods of self-observation: Statistical methods were also of only limited value, for example in psychophysics or in the evaluation of population statistics.

Experimental psychology in Leipzig mainly leant on four methodological types of assessment: The principles of his cultural psychological methodology were only worked out later.

These involved the analytical and comparative observation of objective existing materials, i. Wundt differentiated between two objectives of comparative methodology: Rules of generic comparison and critical interpretation are essentially explained in his Logik [68].

Interpretation only became the characteristic process of the humanities through criticism. It is a process that is set against interpretation to dismantle the interaction produced through psychological analysis.

It examines external or internal contradictions, it should evaluate the reality of intellectual products, and is also a criticism of values and a criticism of opinions.

The typical misconceptions of the intellectualistic, individualistic and unhistorical interpretation of intellectual processes all have "their source in the habitually coarse psychology based on subjective assessment.

What is meant by these principles is the simple prerequisites of the linking of psychological facts that cannot be further extrapolated.

The system of principles has several repeatedly reworked versions, with corresponding laws of development for cultural psychology Wundt, , , , —, , Wundt mainly differentiated between four principles and explained them with examples that originate from the physiology of perception, the psychology of meaning, from apperception research, emotion and motivation theory, and from cultural psychology and ethics.

But it is never just the sum of these impressions, but from the linkage of them that a new one is created with individual features that were not contained in the impressions themselves.

We thus put together the mental picture of a spatial form from a multitude of impressions of light. This principle proves itself in all mental causality linkages and accompanies mental development from its first to its consummate stage.

This principle says that "every individual mental content receives its meaning through the relationships in which it stands to other mental content.

Typical contrast effects are to be seen in sensory perceptions, in the course of emotions and in volitional processes.

There is a general tendency to order the subjective world according to opposites. Thus many individual, historical, economic and social processes exhibit highly contrasting developments.

The consequences of an action extend beyond the original intended purpose and give rise to new motives with new effects.

The intended purpose always induces side-effects and knock-on effects that themselves become purposes, i.

In addition to these four principles, Wundt explained the term of intellectual community and other categories and principles that have an important relational and insightful function.

Wundt demands co-ordinated analysis of causal and teleological aspects; he called for a methodologically versatile psychology and did not demand that any decision be made between experimental-statistical methods and interpretative methods qualitative methods.

Whenever appropriate, he referred to findings from interpretation and experimental research within a multimethod approach.

Thus, for example, the chapters on the development of language or on enlargement of fantasy activity in cultural psychology also contain experimental, statistical and psychophysiological findings.

This was without precedent and has, since then, rarely been achieved by another individual researcher. In the introduction to his Grundzüge der physiologischen Psychologie in , Wundt described Immanuel Kant and Johann Friedrich Herbart as the philosophers who had the most influence on the formation of his own views.

He distanced himself from Herbart's science of the soul and, in particular, from his "mechanism of mental representations" and pseudo-mathematical speculations.

What Kant should we reject? Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz had a far greater and more constructive influence on Wundt's psychology, philosophy, epistemology and ethics.

This can be gleaned from Wundt's Leibniz publication and from his central terms and principles, but has since received almost no attention.

He did, however, disagree with Leibniz's monadology as well as theories on the mathematisation of the world by removing the domain of the mind from this view.

Leibniz developed a new concept of the soul through his discussion on substance and actuality , on dynamic spiritual change, and on the correspondence between body and soul parallelism.

Wundt secularised such guiding principles and reformulated important philosophical positions of Leibniz away from belief in God as the creator and belief in an immortal soul.

Wundt gained important ideas and exploited them in an original way in his principles and methodology of empirical psychology: Wundt's differentiation between the "natural causality" of neurophysiology and the "mental causality" of psychology the intellect , is a direct rendering from Leibniz's epistemology.

Wundt devised the term psychophysical parallelism and meant thereby two fundamentally different ways of considering the postulated psychophysical unit, not just two views in the sense of Fechner's theory of identity.

Wundt derived the co-ordinated consideration of natural causality and mental causality from Leibniz's differentiation between causality and teleology principle of sufficient reason.

The psychological and physiological statements exist in two categorically different reference systems ; the main categories are to be emphasised in order to prevent category mistakes.

With his epistemology of mental causality, he differed from contemporary authors who also advocated the position of parallelism. Wundt had developed the first genuine epistemology and methodology of empirical psychology.

Wundt shaped the term apperception, introduced by Leibniz, into an experimental psychologically based apperception psychology that included neuropsychological modelling.

When Leibniz differentiates between two fundamental functions, perception and striving, this approach can be recognised in Wundt's motivation theory.

The central theme of "unity in the manifold" unitas in multitudine also originates from Leibniz, who has influenced the current understanding of perspectivism and viewpoint dependency.

Unlike the great majority of contemporary and current authors in psychology, Wundt laid out the philosophical and methodological positions of his work clearly.

Wundt was against the founding empirical psychology on a metaphysical or structural principle of soul as in Christian belief in an immortal soul or in a philosophy that argues "substance"- ontologically.

Wundt's position was decisively rejected by several Christianity-oriented psychologists and philosophers as a psychology without soul , although he did not use this formulation from Friedrich Lange , who was his predecessor in Zürich from to Wundt's guiding principle was the development theory of the mind.

Wundt's ethics also led to polemical critiques due to his renunciation of an ultimate transcendental basis of ethics God, the Absolute.

Wundt's evolutionism was also criticised for its claim that ethical norms had been culturally changed in the course of human intellectual development.

Wundt's autobiography [84] and his inaugural lectures in Zurich and Leipzig [85] as well as his commemorative speeches for Fechner [86] and his Essay on Leibniz [87] provide an insight into the history of Wundt's education and the contemporary flows and intellectual controversies in the second half of the 19th century.

Wundt distanced himself from the metaphysical term soul and from theories about its structure and properties, as posited by Herbart, Lotze and Fechner.

Wundt followed Kant and warned against a primarily metaphysically founded, philosophically deduced psychology: Psychology and the other sciences always rely on the help of philosophy here, and particularly on logic and epistemology, otherwise only an immanent philosophy, i.

He is concerned about psychologists bringing their own personal metaphysical convictions into psychology and that these presumptions would no longer be exposed to epistemological criticism.

Wundt claims that philosophy as a general science has the task of "uniting to become a consistent system through the general knowledge acquired via the individual sciences.

Starting from the active and creative-synthetic apperception processes of consciousness, Wundt considered that the unifying function was to be found in volitional processes and the conscious setting of objectives and subsequent activities.

Wundt extrapolated this empirically founded volitional]] psychology to a metaphysical voluntarism. He demands, however, that the empirical-psychological and derived metaphysical voluntarism are kept apart from one another and firmly maintained that his empirical psychology was created independently of the various teachings of metaphysics.

Wundt interpreted intellectual-cultural progress and biological evolution as a general process of development whereby, however, he did not want to follow the abstract ideas of entelechy , vitalism , animism , and by no means Schopenhauer's volitional metaphysics.

He believed that the source of dynamic development was to be found in the most elementary expressions of life, in reflexive and instinctive behaviour, and constructed a continuum of attentive and apperceptive processes, volitional or selective acts, up to social activities and ethical decisions.

At the end of this rational idea he recognised a practical ideal: Parallel to Wundt's work on cultural psychology he wrote his much-read Ethik , 3rd ed.

Wundt considered the questions of ethics to be closely linked with the empirical psychology of motivated acts [98] "Psychology has been such an important introduction for me, and such an indispensable aid for the investigation of ethics, that I do not understand how one could do without it.

The derived principles are to be examined in a variety of areas: In his discussion on free will as an attempt to mediate between determinism and indeterminism he categorically distinguishes between two perspectives: Wundt's ethics can, put simply, be interpreted as an attempt to mediate between Kant's apriorism and empiricism.

Moral rules are the legislative results of a universal intellectual development, but are neither rigidly defined nor do they simply follow changing life conditions.

Individualism and utilitarianism are strictly rejected. In his view, only the universal intellectual life can be considered to be an end in itself.

Wundt also spoke on the idea of humanity in ethics, on human rights and human duties in his speech as Rector of Leipzig University in on the centenary of the French Revolution.

Wundt divided up his three-volume Logik into General logic and epistemology, Logic of the exact sciences, and Logic of the humanities. While logic, the doctrine of categories, and other principles were discussed by Wundt in a traditional manner, they were also considered from the point of view of development theory of the human intellect, i.

The subsequent equitable description of the special principles of the natural sciences and the humanities enabled Wundt to create a new epistemology.

The ideas that remain current include epistemology and the methodology of psychology: The list of works at the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science includes a total of German and foreign-language editions for the period from to MPI für Wissenschaftsgeschichte: The American psychologist Edwin Boring counted publications by Wundt excluding pure reprints but with revised editions that are, on average, pages long and amount to a total of 53, pages.

Thus Wundt published an average of seven works per year over a period of 68 years and wrote or revised an average of 2.

Apart from his library and his correspondence, Wundt's extraordinarily extensive written inheritance also includes many extracts, manuscripts, lecture notes and other materials [] Wundt's written inheritance in Leipzig consists of 5, documents, mainly letters, and was digitalised by the Leipzig University Library.

The catalogue is available at the Kalliope online portal. The University's stock consists of 6, volumes in western languages including bound periodicals as well as 9, special print runs and brochures from the original Wundt Library.

The last Wundt biography which tried to represent both Wundt's psychology and his philosophy was by Eisler One can also get an idea of Wundt's thoughts from his autobiography Erlebtes und Erkanntes Later biographies by Nef and Petersen up to Arnold in restrict themselves primarily to the psychology or the philosophy.

At the start of the First World War Wundt, like Edmund Husserl and Max Planck , signed the patriotic call to arms as did about 4, professors and lecturers in Germany, and during the following years he wrote several political speeches and essays that were also characterised by the feeling of a superiority of German science and culture.

In old age he appeared to become more conservative see Wundt, ; Wundt's correspondence , then — also in response to the war, the subsequent social unrest and the severe revolutionary events of the post-war period — adopted an attitude that was patriotic and leant towards nationalism.

Wilhelm Wundt's son, philosopher Max Wundt, had an even more clearly intense, somewhat nationalist, stance.

While he was not a member of the Nazi party NSDAP , he wrote about national traditions and race in philosophical thinking.

The psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin described the pioneering spirit at the new Leipzig Institute in this fashion: Wundt spent several afternoons every week in his adjacent modest Professorial office, came to see us, advised us and often got involved in the experiments; he was also available to us at any time.

The philosopher Rudolf Eisler considered Wundt's approach as follows: Wundt always differentiates between the physical-physiological and the purely psychological, and then again from the philosophical point-of-view.

This knowledgeable representation examines Wundt's main topics, views and scientific activities and exceeds the generally much briefer Wundt reception within the field of psychology, in which many of the important prerequisites and references are ignored right from the start.

The internal consistency of Wundt's work from to , between the main works and within the reworked editions, has repeatedly been discussed and been subject to differing assessments in parts.

One could consider Wundt's gradual concurrence with Kant's position, that conscious processes are not measurable on the basis of self-observation and cannot be mathematically formulated, to be a major divergence.

Wundt, however, never claimed that psychology could be advanced through experiment and measurement alone, but had already stressed in that the development history of the mind and comparative psychology should provide some assistance.

Wundt attempted to redefine and restructure the fields of psychology and philosophy. None of his Leipzig assistants and hardly any textbook authors in the subsequent two generations have adopted Wundt's broad theoretical horizon, his demanding scientific theory or the multi-method approach.

Oswald Külpe had already ruled cultural and animal psychology out. While the Principles of physiological Psychology met with worldwide resonance, Wundt's cultural psychology ethno-psychology appeared to have had a less widespread impact.

But there are indications that George Herbert Mead and Franz Boas , among others, were influenced by it.

In its time, Wundt's Ethik received more reviews than almost any of his other main works. Most of the objections were ranged against his renouncing any ultimate transcendental ethical basis God, the Absolute , as well as against his ideas regarding evolution, i.

As Wundt did not describe any concrete ethical conflicts on the basis of examples and did not describe any social ethics in particular, his teachings with the general idea of humanism appear rather too abstract.

Leipzig was a world-famous centre for the new psychology after There are various interpretations regarding why Wundt's influence after the turn of the century, i.

A survey was conducted on the basis of more than contemporary and later sources: A range of scientific controversies were presented in detail.

Wundt's terminology also created difficulties because he had — from today's point-of-view — given some of his most important ideas unfortunate names so that there were constant misunderstandings.

It is therefore necessary to remember Wundt's expressly stated desire for uniformity and lack of contradiction, for the mutual supplementation of psychological perspectives.

Wundt's more demanding, sometimes more complicated and relativizing, then again very precise style can also be difficult — even for today's German readers; a high level of linguistic competence is required.

There are only English translations for very few of Wundt's work. In particular, the Grundzüge der physiologischen Psychologie expanded into three volumes and the ten volumes of Völkerpsychologie, all the books on philosophy and important essays on the theory of science remain untranslated.

Such shortcomings may explain many of the fundamental deficits and lasting misunderstandings in the Anglo-American reception of Wundt's work.

Titchener, a two-year resident of Wundt's lab and one of Wundt's most vocal advocates in the United States, is responsible for several English translations and mistranslations of Wundt's works that supported his own views and approach, which he termed "structuralism" and claimed was wholly consistent with Wundt's position.

As Wundt's three-volume Logik und Wissenschaftslehre, i. A highly contradictory picture emerges from any systematic research on his reception.

On the one hand, the pioneer of experimental psychology and founder of modern psychology as a discipline is praised, on the other hand, his work is insufficiently tapped and appears to have had little influence.

Misunderstandings and stereotypical evaluations continue into the present, even in some representations of the history of psychology and in textbooks.

Wundt's entire work is investigated in a more focused manner in more recent assessments regarding the reception of Wundt, and his theory of science and his philosophy is included Araujo, ; Danziger, , , ; Fahrenberg, , , ; Jüttemann, ; Kim, ; van Rappard, Like other important psychologists and philosophers, Wundt was subject to ideological criticism, for example by authors of a more Christianity-based psychology, by authors with materialistic and positivistic scientific opinions, or from the point-of-view of Marxist-Leninist philosophy and social theory, as in Leipzig, German Democratic Republic , up to Wundt was involved in a number of scientific controversies or was responsible for triggering them:.

There are many forms of criticism of Wundt's psychology, of his apperception psychology, of his motivation theory, of his version of psychophysical parallelism with its concept of "mental causality", his refutation of psychoanalytic speculation about the unconscious, or of his critical realism.

A recurring criticism is that Wundt largely ignored the areas of psychology that he found less interesting, such as differential psychology, child psychology and educational psychology.

In his cultural psychology there is no empirical social psychology because there were still no methods for investigating it at the time.

Among his postgraduate students, assistants and other colleagues, however, were several important pioneers: Wundt developed the first comprehensive and uniform theory of the science of psychology.

The special epistemological and methodological status of psychology is postulated in this wide-ranging conceptualisation, characterised by his neurophysiological, psychological and philosophical work.

The human as a thinking and motivated subject is not to be captured in the terms of the natural sciences. Psychology requires special categories and autonomous epistemological principles.

It is, on the one hand, an empirical humanity but should not, on the other hand, ignore its physiological basis and philosophical assumptions.

Thus a varied, multi-method approach is necessary: Wundt demanded the ability and readiness to distinguish between perspectives and reference systems, and to understand the necessary supplementation of these reference systems in changes of perspective.

He defined the field of psychology very widely and as interdisciplinary, and also explained just how indispensable is the epistemological-philosophical criticism of psychological theories and their philosophical prerequisites.

Psychology should remain connected with philosophy in order to promote this critique of knowledge of the metaphysical presuppositions so widespread among psychologists.

The conceptual relationships within the complete works created over decades and continuously reworked have hardly been systematically investigated.

The most important theoretical basis is the empirical-psychological theory of apperception, based on Leibniz's philosophical position, that Wundt, on the one hand, based on experimental psychology and his neuropsychological modelling and, on the other hand, extrapolated into a development theory for culture.

The fundamental reconstruction of Wundt's main ideas is a task that cannot be achieved by any one person today due to the complexity of the complete works.

He tried to connect the fundamental controversies of the research directions epistemologically and methodologically by means of a co-ordinated concept — in a confident handling of the categorically basically different ways of considering the interrelations.

Here, during the founding phase of university psychology, he already argued for a highly demanding meta-science meta-scientific reflection — and this potential to stimulate interdisciplinarity und perspectivism complementary approaches has by no means been exhausted.

References given by Alan Kim [2]. Wilhelm Wundt and the making of a scientific psychology. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Wilhelm Wundt Wilhelm Wundt in Psychology the Science of Behaviour.

Nicholas Brealey Publishing Das Institut für experimentelle Psychologie. Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt — Leben, Werk und Persönlichkeit in Bildern und Texten.

American Psychologist , , Volume 46, pp. Robinson on an important meeting of minds at Leipzig University". Frühe apparative Psychologie, Wilhelm Wundt und seine Schüler, , S.

Das Institut für experimentelle Psychologie, , Psychological Research, , Volume 42, p. Wilhelm Wundt und seine Schüler.

Historische Entwicklungen in der neueren Psychologie bis zum Ende des Peter Lang, Frankfurt a. Social factors in the origins of a new science: The case of psychology.

American Sociological Review, , Volume 31, Wilhelm Wundt — Bedenkenswertes und Bedenkliches aus seinem Lebenswerk.

Leitgedanken der Wissenschaftskonzeption und deren Rezeptionsgeschichte, On the threshold of the New Psychology: Situating Wundt and James. A Centennial Collection pp.

Leitgedanken der Wissenschaftskonzeption und deren Rezeptionsgeschichte. Wilhelm Wundt — pioneer in psychology and outsider?

Basic concepts and their reception e-book, Grundriss der Psychologie, , S. Zur Kategorienlehre der Psychologie, , S. Grundzüge, —, Band 3, S.

Die Prinzipien der Philosophie und Monadologie Les principles de la philosophie ou la monadologie. Eugen Diederichs Verlag, München , S. Der Aufbau der realen Welt.

Grundriss der allgemeinen Kategorienlehre. De Gruyter, Berlin , 2nd ed.

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