Myth Online Slot recension – Höga jackpottar online i dag

Jukinos / 11.10.2018

7. Dez. Since this online casino game is based on the folk tales, the graphics OVO Casino, Myth Online Slot recension – Höga jackpottar online i dag. 7. Jan. Black Beauty Slot - Gratis Bally Wulff Slots-Spiel online spielen Play free slot MYTH ONLINE SLOT RECENSION – HÖGA JACKPOTTAR ONLINE I DAG, Super Safari Online Slot Review – Try for Free or Real Money. 8. Dez. Welcome to 12BetCasino Asia an online roulette casino en ligne Myth Online Slot recension – Höga jackpottar online i dag rainbow and find.

Vi bevakar spelmarknaden och rapporterar om nya spelsajter som är seriösa och ger dig som spelare mervärde i form av schyssta spel och bra erbjudanden.

För det första ska det vara seriöst och ha ett bra rykte bland spelare. För det andra ska det vara licenserat av myndigheter som ställer stora krav och för det tredje ska det erbjuda bra spel.

Förutom dessa tre kriterier anser vi att ett bra spelbolag även ska erbjuda snabb support, ett bra välkomstpaket, mobilcasino och regelbundna bonus- och freespinskampanjer.

Svenska casino Allt fler spelbolag riktar sig mot svenska spelare. De utgör majoriteten av alla casinospel och är även väldigt populära och enkla att spela.

Du kan även spela exempelvis roulette, black jack, videopoker, skraplotter och massor av andra spel. Spela i mobilen Hos de bästa spelbolagen kan du i dag spela massor av casinospel i mobilen eller surfplattan oavsett om du har en enhet med IOS eller Android.

I dag kan du till och med spela livecasino direkt i mobilen hos ett flertal aktörer. Hitta bästa bonus — vi guidar dig!

Det kan vara i form av gratis spelpengar, höga insättningsbonusar eller free spins. Free spins Kampanjer med free spins är väldigt omtyckta bland spelare.

De ger dig som kund möjlighet att spela helt gratis men samtidigt vinna riktiga pengar. Förutom att spelen utvecklas och görs roligare och intressantare försöker även en del spelbolag förhöja spelupplevelsen genom att göra spelandet till ett stort äventyr eller tävling.

Nya spel tillkommer och gamla utvecklas. Detsamma gäller spelbolagen och speltillverkarna. Sammanfattning Här kommer en kort sammanfattning av vad du hittar hos oss: Tack för att du besökt oss!

The Revival Charo? Three times the island of Britain was overrun by men from the Danish pen- insula and Norway. While most of us recognize the Scandinavian origin of Danes and Normans, we have not so generally recognized that the Angles and Jutes were also Scandinavian in origin.

But evidence has accumulated to show that they too had their home for centuries in Denmark and were aUied in blood and customs to the men of the North.

The Angles first appear as one of a group of seven tribes called the Ingaevones, who, Tacitus in his Oermania 98 a.

Of the Ingaevonic group Tacitus says: Mother Earth, and believe that she inter- venes in human affairs and visits the peoples. On an island in the ocean there is an unviolated grove, and within it a consecrated car protected by a covering, which but one priest is permitted to touch.

He knows when the goddess is present in her sanctuary, and walks beside her with great reverence as she is drawn along by cows.

It is a season of rejoicing, and every place which the god- dess deigns to visit is a scene of festivity. Afterwards the ear and its coverings, and if you are willing to believe it, the divinity herself, are washed in a secret lake.

Slaves perform this office, whom the same lake in- stantly swallows up. Hence arises a mysterious dread and a holy ignorance concerning what that may be which only those witness who are about to perish.

But the Danes wor- shipped a harvest goddess whom they called Gefion, whose oxen drew the island of Sjselland Zealand out of the Swedish Mfilaren and planted it in the sea as a home for the Danes.

Among the seven Ingaevonic tribes Tacitus mentions the Anglii. The Danes probably first appear as the Daukiones, mentioned by Ptolemy in his Oeography ca.

The form Scadinavia is found even earlier in Pliny's Natural History 77 a. Tacitus is the first to mention the Suionum Civitates or Swedes. The tendency in the past has been to conclude that because the Anglo-Saxon language as it ap- pears in Britain bears closest affinity to Low German, the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes of the Con- tinent must all have been Germans.

Besides this conmion cult of Nerthus, the Angles and Danes had also simi- lar traditions in regard to their royal pedigrees.

The genealogies of all the Anglo-Saxon tribal kings, except those of Essex, go back in a striking way to kings who, in Danish tradition, are assigned to the Danish dynasty of the Skj5ldimgs on the island of Sjselland.

Furthermore, the Anglo-Saxon poems of WidsUh and Biowulf demonstrate beyond question that the same warrior legends were chanted in the halls of Leire and Lincoln.

Besides this community of tradition, there ex- isted a community of manners. Archaeological research shows one homogeneous civilization stretching in prehistoric times from northern Scan- dinavia down beyond the Dannevirke and the River Eider.

A particular piece of evidence link- ing Anglian culture on the Continent with that in Britain is the discovery in cemeteries of the in- sular Angles of a distinct cruciform brooch of three-knobbed type.

Its Continental diffusion is restricted to Scandinavian territory. As Professor Baldwin Brown says: These facts are strong corroboration of Bede's oft-quoted statement as to the homes of the fifth- century invaders.

Having classified them as Jutes, Saxons, and Angles, he says of the last, "They spring from the land which is called Angulus, and which is said to have remained uninhabited from that time to the present day.

It lies between the boundaries of the Jutes and those of the Saxons. We may regard it as certain that the middle of the Danish peninsula and the islands adjoining to the east were occupied in the fourth century by the Angles, a large nation closely akin in religion, heroic lore, and even, we may believe, in stock, to the Danes.

Bede's word, so amply confirmed in regard to the Angles, is probably, therefore, true in regard to the Jutes and Saxons. To the north of the Angles lay the Jutes, who have left their name in the province of Jutland: The Saxons seem to have begun their piratical operations and coastal settlements in England and France as early as the fourth century, for early in the fifth there appear two Roman ofiicers who bear respectively the titles of Comes litoris Saxonici per Gallias and Comes lUoris Saxonici per Briton- nias.

The latter "" Saxon shore" included the Eng- lish coast from the Wash to Porchester. Finally, these raids began to take on a new character.

The Saxons, probably operating from a Frisian base, entered upon the conquest and settlement of the Thames basin and the southern coast of England.

The Angles, as we have seen, migrated in such numbers that their land was left desolate. They seem at once to have ocAipied the coimtry be- tween the Stour and the Don.

The region to the north they raided and pillaged, but did not occupy till after In numbers and importance the Angles from the first held a position of pre-emi- nence among the invaders.

The Saxon kings bor- rowed their pedigrees from the Angles, and their peoples called themselves Angelcyn. It was in Northumbria, settled by the Angles, that the monastic culture of Whitby, Jarrow, and Lindis- fame arose.

The Franks casket, that unique sur- vival of barbaric art, is Anglian. Their subject-matter, as we shall point out in detail in Chapter XI, is nothing more than the heroic legend current in the old Anglian home and among their neighbors the Danes.

For more than three centuries the Anglo-Saxons had been settled in the island. They had long since crushed the resistance of the Britons.

In spite of internal dissensions and dynastic changes they felt themselves at peace with the world and expected even better things for the future.

Like a monitory roll of thimder there appeared off the Dorset coast in three ships of the North- men.

When in the Northmen came and de- stroyed Lindisf ame with all its golden shrines and precious books, Alcuin wrote in anger and terror: See the church of St.

Cuthbert drenched with the blood of the priests of God, and reft of all its treasures. It has been shown that in the Stone Age the North supported the maximum pop- ulation allowed by the agricultural and economic conditions of the time.

Some districts were better cultivated even than now. The Viking Age has been variously dated: In three simultanieous waves the Scandinavians poured over Europe: Fifty years after the death of Charlemagne the churches of all Christendom were uniting in the prayer, "Libera nos a furore Normannorum.

At first there were the usual plunderings of the very rich monastic houses. Jeweled shrines, sacred bells, finely wrought gob- lets and candlesticks were carried off by the sack- ful to Norwegian forts and galleys.

God pity the abbot or priest who offered resistance! As the Irish themselves said: The impression which the vikings made upon the Irish was profound.

Only Icelandic literature is richer than the Irish in reminiscences of that stirring period. The king of Leinster had sent envoys to the Scandinavian jarls of the Isles, promising at least two of them the hand of the beautiful Gorm- flaith and the whole of Ireland.

On Good Friday within sight of Dublin they encountered the Irish army. As the North- men seemed at first to have the upper hand, he cried: Meanwhile on the Irish side, Murchadh, the son of Brian, with a sword in each hand, slew fifty men with his right and fifty with his left, only to fall at last.

Brian himself, who sat apart and offered psalms and paternosters in similar multiples of fifty, was surprised by Br6Sir, the Northman, and cleft through the skull.

Wolf the Quarrelsome cut open his belly, and led him round and round the trunk of a tree, and so wound all his entrails out of him, and he did not die before they were all drawn out of him.

As Charles Kingsley has so well said: The sense of solidarity forced upon Alfred's kingdom by the Danes soon reacted against them.

His son, Edward the Elder , won back much that had been lost. East Anglia and the "Five Boroughs," which the Danes seem to have held lightly, soon submitted, though the Boroughs retained their jarls and their Northern institutions.

The easy amalgamation of Anglian and Dane is but another indication of their dose kinship. In Northumbria the Scandinavian colonization was more intensive.

In the kings of Scotland and Strathdyde and Olaf 's brother, king of Dublin, joined forces against Athelstan.

This conflict, like that of Clontarf , is typical of the racial maelstrom of the Viking Age. There were Northmen also in Athdstan's army.

Athd- stan won the day, and the Anglo-Saxon poet thus gloats over the victory: Men of the Northland Slot over shield.

There was the Scotsman Weary of war. We the West Saxons, Long as the daylight Lasted, in companies Troubled the track of the host that we hated.

Then with their nailed prows Parted the Norsemen, a Blood-reddened relic of Javdins, over The jarring breaker, the deep-sea biUow, Shaping their way toward Dyflen again.

Shamed in their souls. Seven types of coin are found in England with his name upon them as king. In Ireland Olaf ruled long and gloriously until , when he sustained at Tara a severe defeat.

The following year, aged and heart-broken, he went on a pilgrimage to lona, and there died. For nearly a century after there seems to have been no material addition to the Danish colonies in England.

The reigning family in Denmark determined to annex England, and sent out army after army to weaken the land. At last, after a resolute but futile resistance by the English mon- archs, Svend, king of Denmark, in was ac- cepted king of all England.

In he was suc- ceeded by his son Cnut, through whose organizing genius England attained a imity never realized under the Anglo-Saxons.

He ruled England as an English king. From London he governed Norway — which he had also won by conquest — his own Denmark, and Sweden, over which he exercised a superior lordship.

Cnut's empire at that time was rivalled only by Germany. Cnut brought with him some Danish institu- tions, especially in the organization of his court.

He was succeeded by two sons, Harald and HarSacnut On the death of the latter, the Anglo-Saxon house resumed its rule. Edward the Confessor adopted Cnut's institutions, and grafted on these an ever increas- ing influence from Normandy.

During his reign the court became half Norman. His short-lived successor had to face two invasions in the one year in which he held the throne.

The Normans were five generations out of Norway and Denmark. Ex- ternally they were French; but in their strength and resolution they were Northmen still and rein- forced the British blood with yet another Northern strain.

The most important function of the viking mi- grations in Western Europe was to reinvigorate our civilization with those qualities of latent cul- ture and physical energy and intrepidity which the Northern race has always so abundantly possessed.

Another great service was their dissemination from France over northern Europe of a renewed Gallo- Roman external culture.

They filled a third sphere of usefulness as carriers of Celtic and Northern imagination and art. Today, perhaps, the most apparent contribution of the Northmen in the west is in the English lan- guage.

Some of these words are Norwegian; most of them are Danish. Again, the vocabulary and syntax of modem written Scandinavian are more intelligible to the untrained English reader than is German.

Scandinavian settlers have left some thousand place-names on the map of England, more thickly distributed, naturally, in the north and east.

The Scandinavians are freemen. They under- stand organized democracy. No other people can exhibit a comparable society of freehold farmers living each on his own estate, not huddled to- gether in feudal hamlets.

There is no more star- tling commentary upon the settlements of the Northmen in Britain than the statistics of slaves in Doomsday Booh. In the Danish counties of Lincolnshire and Yorkshire there were no slaves at all!

The Northmen renewed the laws and social in- stitutions of England. The words law and by-law are Norse.

The Scandinavians carried non-Roman law to its highest development, the supreme prod- uct of their institutions, the commonwealth of Iceland, being a republic governed by a law-court.

While the Anglian law already existing in England was not far different, being actually Scandinavian in its origin, the later Danish colonists of the ninth century seem to have strengthened it by making the divisions of property more equitable, criminal laws more strict, by differentiating clandestine and open crimes, and by regulating trade.

When William the Conqueror introduced Norman courts and, with them, French and Latin terminology, he incorporated the Danish law of the northern and eastern counties upon equal terms with the Anglo- Saxon laws which still prevailed in western and southern England.

Furthermore, the Danes contributed to England the foundation of its commercial greatness, the forgotten life of the sea. The vikings imitated and adapted with great rapidity.

They disseminated their acquired cul- ture in their restless wanderings, carrying what they learned in France to England, what they learned in Ireland to Iceland.

On one shaft Odin with his raven appears, about to be swallowed by Fenriswolf , while on the opposite face Christ, distinguished by the cross and the fish symbol, is trampling on the Serpent.

The complex civilization of the western colonies reacted upon the home lands. Coins after Caro- lingian patterns, struck by the Norwegian kings of Dublin, are found in Norway, Sweden, and Den- mark.

The vildngs who sailed from home in the spring in their russet homespun and their heavy cloaks of wolfskin and bearskin, as wolfish heathens and '"bear-sarks," returned in the autunm in mantles of scarlet and many-colored doth, and with the polite bearing of Anglo-Saxons or of Franks.

Until about a. In France the vikings learned to dress in western style, to build homes, to construct castles and walled cities and paved streets.

The imperial idea carried out by Charle- magne was imitated in the North by Harald Fair- hair in Norway and Harald Blacktooth in Den- mark, while an institution like the court poet seems to have been strengthened by the Irish example.

A civilization that is only foreign loan and tinsel is of little account. But a society that sucks its sap only from home soil and shuts itself out from all that is alien has no power of development.

Instead, they bettered what they borrowed, advancing rapidly from students to teachers. The Normans in France and in England took the lead in litera- ture, architecture, and government.

The ancient Scandinavians rivalled the modem Japanese in taking on a new material civilization in a day.

But the texture of the inner life of the Northern mind persisted unchanged. The core of the social fabric was Scandinavian still; the Law remained intact.

HAkon Hakonabson, to Henrt m IF the Norman Conquest did not cut off England from aU communication with the Scandmavian North, it was not because the Normans inherited an abiding affection for the land of their ultimate origin.

Though the conquerors were themselves only a few generations out of Norway and Den- mark, they spoke a tongue alien both to England and Scandinavia.

In Normandy the Northern language had disappeared so rapidly that the second duke, William Longsword, who wished his son Richard to learn Norse, sent him to Bayeux, where the old language still lingered, although it had died out at Rouen.

Nor did the descendants of the Danish and Norwegian settlers in the fen country and the eastern counties of England feel any kinship with their alien-tongued cousins.

Indeed, they were the last to recognize the rule of the conquerors. It was the population of these Danish districts who looked across the North Sea for succor against the Norman oppres- sor, while the claim of the Danish kings, the heirs of Cnut, to the English throne helped to keep Eng- land clearly in the light of Danish foreign politics for two centuries after Danish rule ceased in Eng- land.

The Anglo-Saxons, too, would have pre- ferred a successor of Cnut to the iron rule of the Normans. Then the Danes had their own king again, Svend, son of Estrid, sister of Cnut the Great, who ruled Denmark well for nearly thirty years.

The last ten years of his reign coincided with the first decade of Norman rule in England, and Svend's ambitions were turned constantly toward England during this time.

Yet twice, in and , Svend landed an army in England. The first time they seized York and carried off much plunder, but the second time they found no support and withdrew.

This was the last landing of a Danish army on English soil. King Svend died in , and was succeeded in turn by five of his sons.

Only one of them, Cnut, organized an expedition against England. In a fleet of a thousand ships assembled in the Limfjord in North Jutland, with the object of sailing against England, and was joined by Norwegian allies.

But Cnut himself was detained by domestic troubles until so late in the year that he was obliged to let the fleet disband. Deposits of English coins in Denmark, which occur in abundance from the time of Cnut the Great — a good indication of commerce — , now fail utterly.

The fact that one of Niels's own types was used by Stephen in England may be due to an English goldsmith returned from Denmark.

To England the Valdemars looked for foreign alli- ances and ideals of government. Valdemar the Great employed several Englishmen to fill re- sponsible positions in Denmark in the chancery and the exchequer.

Albans, a celebrated English goldsmith, performed some duties in Den- mark, and one Nicholas of St. Albans was for thirty years master of the mint to Valdemar, later hold- ing the same post in England.

Valdemar 11 entered upon friendly diplomatic relations with the English crown. He agreed to aid the German emperor. In S and the Danish chronicles record the chief events in England.

In the men of Count Absalon received letters of protection in England, and in Count Absalon himself again took out a passport for his ship and property.

It cannot, however, be said that Valdemar's foreign policies were more English than French or inter- national. His wars took him into Germany, his sister married Philip Augustus of France, and of his own two wives the first was a princess of Bo- hemia, the second a princess of Portugal.

Englishmen followed the chief events of the period of the Valdemars with considerable interest, if we may judge from contemporary Anglo-Latin works.

John of Salisbury, in one of his letters. English chroniclers recorded the great Danish expeditions in Pomerania, and the im- portant part played by the Danes in the Third Crusade At the same time they deprecated the marriage of Philip Augustus and Ingeborg of Denmark as an act of special perfidy on Philip's part toward England.

The brilliant Eng- lish historian, Matthew Paris of St. Albans, a contemporary of Valdemar 11, asserts that when death cut short that monarch's career, he was pre- paring to invade England, "according to his ancient right.

The only events that attracted much attention in England in this time were the murders of Erik V in , and of Erik VI in In fact we have no reason to suppose that merchant ships had ever ceased to ply between Denmark and England from viking days down.

Even in the ninth century peaceful trading craft had followed in the corsair's wake. Alfred the Great, in his OrosittSf describes the flourishing port of Hedeby, later supplanted by its neighbour Slesvig, on the east coast of South Jutland.

After the Norman conquest, Slesvig continued to be one of the lead- ing Danish ports, and maintained a trade with England through the middle ages, but for English commerce the important centre was the cathedral town of Ribe, opposite England on the west coast of Jutland.

In exchange for these privileges they were required to hold the watch at Bishopsgate. During the reign of Valdemar 11 , notices of commerce with Denmark appear fre- quently in the royal letters preserved in the Eng- lish Rolls.

Now it is an order to seize the goods of Danish merchants to cover the losses of citizens of London in Denmark; again it is a general license to Danish merchants to trade in England free of toll; on another occasion, it may be, English traders are allowed to carry grain to Denmark; or stiU again, the king gives a passport to a mes- senger he is sending to Denmark after hawks, or he writes to the officials of Yarmouth directing the disposition of a consignment of Danish horses which has just arrived.

Valdemar's rent-roll shows that 8, horses were at this time annually exported from Ribe. Later in the century, English money — the pound sterling — was the standard of value in the Danish trioding centres, actual in- stances being recorded from Slesvig, Roskilde, and Ribe.

Trade in Denmark, unlike that of Norway, was not the approved avocation of nobility and clergy.

The citizens of the Danish towns who followed the seas were socially and in- tellectually a submerged population, who never rose to a position in the conmiunity as important as that of the citizens of the German trading towns.

Possibly, commerce may have carried oral artistic traditions, such as the ballad and the fairy tale, from one country to the other. But when the popular ballad emerges in Denmark in the fifteenth century, it is in the possession of the no- bility, and its knightly themes rarely touch the unromantic life of the townsfolk.

During the thirteenth century a more independ- ent and intellectually aggressive people were tak- ing over the Danish trade with England — the Germans of the Hansa towns.

Early in the four- teenth century, half the ships which sailed from Ribe to King's Lynn were German. Valdemar came to open war with the Hansa League, and apparently sought the help of Ed- ward m in his struggle.

Finally, at the beginning of another century, England and Denmark were drawn together for a time by the embassies sent to arrange the marriage of King Erik and Philippa, daughter of Henry IV.

The match was brought about by the great Queen Margaret, Erik's ambitious aunt, who, in , by the Edict of Calmar, effected the union of the three Scandinavian countries.

One of the delegates, the Bishop of Oslo, had the honor of preaching before King Henry. A proxy wed- ding at Westminster was confirmed by a magnifi- cent marriage ceremony at Lund in , when Philippa became Queen of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden.

She seems to have been a spirited woman, capable on occasion of directing the Danish forces. She lies buried at Vadstena in Sweden, where she died while on a visit to the monastery, in Philippa was the first English queen of Denmark after the Norman Conquest.

The second was Caroline Matilda, who was married to Christian Vn in About the time of the Norman Con- quest the old race of Swedish kings at Uppsala came to an end, and in the following centuries the country was torn by rival factions.

Under these conditions Swedien was not likely to maintain very intimate relations with England. In the English Rolls we have but one or two records of Swedish merchants in the twelfth century.

In a rela- tive of the king of Sweden visited England and gave Henry m a present of hawks and hares. It was the island of Gotland, with Visby its capital, in the Baltic east of the Swedish coast, which was the centre of that trade.

The soil of Gotland has yielded no less than 22, Arabic coins. Of English and Irish coins from the eighth century mitil thirty thousand have been unearthed in Norway, Sweden, and Den- mark and almost half of them were found on the island of Grotland.

And the great mass of this wealth must have been accumulated in commerce, for Grotlanders do not appear in history as viking raiders.

Their trade with England, to which they brought large quantities of fur and wax, continued through the middle ages, even after Low German merchants in the thirteenth century obtained a footing in Grotland, and Visby became a member of the Hansa League.

The trade between Grotland and England does not appear to have left any trace in literature, and need not, therefore, be treated here in more detail.

A glance at the map will explain the cause. Denmark, after the Norman Conquest, retained no colonial possessions in the British Isles.

Politically she had no interest in England beyond the sentimental one that England once belonged to Denmark and might some day be regained.

Furthermore, England was not a neces- sary market for Danish trade. The rich, rolling plains of Denmark, relieved of their congestion by the viking migrations, were self-supporting in most of the necessities of life, and for the importation of articles of luxury, as well as the export of her own horses and fish, Denmark had the Continent at her door, and overland routes led from Aalborg in the north of Jutland south to Rome and southeast to Paris.

For Norway, on the other hand, England was the nearest door. Norway's colonies in the British Isles extended from the Shethuids in the north, through the Orimeys and the counties of Caithness and Sutherland, down the west coast of Scotland to the Isle of Man; in Ireland Dublin was the capital of a Norwegian kingdom; and far to the north and west were dependencies in the Faeroes and the republics of Iceland and Greenland.

And, quite independently of her colonies, the trade of Norway with England direct was per- haps the closest bond of all between the two coun- tries.

The austerity of Norway's mountains and fjords compelled her people to fare abroad in quest of the abundance of other lands.

There was no road open except the sea. Opposite Norway, across the North Sea, beckoned the English coast, many of its ports peopled by descendants of Norwegian settlers.

The Norwegian skipper found the route to England more direct, and his reception more friendly than if he ventured farther south to the alien-tongued ports of the Continent.

In England the Norwegians could find all they desired. The leading staple which they brought from England was wheat. The very word flUr in Old Norwegian is from the English.

Only simpler and coarser stuffs were manufactured in England itself, the finer weaves being importa- tions from Flanders and France, whither England sent its raw wool.

England acted as the middleman in the shipment also of laige quantities of French wine to Norway. Of first importance was fish.

In the middle ages, when fast-days were more religiously observed than now, fish was a prime necessity.

In the waters oflF the western coast of Norway there were cod enough to be dried into stockfish for a centiuy of Fridays in all Europe, and the Norwegians, from the earliest times, availed themselves of this source of wealth.

They dried the fish in the wind, and sent them over the seas to England, whence they were distributed near and far, even to the most inaccessible inland dis- tricts of the Continent.

So important were their fisheries to the Norwegians that on one occasion they obtained a special dispensation from the Pope to fish on the Sabbath.

Lmnber, which in later times has become one of Norway's chief articles of export, did not figure significantly in her foreign trade before the fourteenth century; England and France were not yet deforested.

Icelandic wool must also have been a marketable conmiodity then as now. And fish was not Norway's only staple of trade. Hunting hawks and falcons came from the North, and furs of all kinds.

Though the document is not historical, the list is a representative cargo from Norway. In the century alter the Norman Conquest the chief English port of entry for Norwegian ships was the old Scandinavian settlement of Grimsby in Lincolnshire, near the mouth of the Humber, where Norwegians were required to pay a certain stipulated toll in the time of Henry I and Henry H.

They held their course to Grimsby, where he met "a great number of people from Norway, the Orkneys, Scotland and the Sudreys," including Harald Gilli, in disguise, who subsequently became king of Nor- way.

From Grimsby, Kali sailed back to Bergen in Norway, and recited a poem about his English experiences: Unpleasantly we have been wading In the mud of a weary five weeks.

Dirt we had indeed in plenty. While we lay in Grimsby harbour; But now on the moor of sea-guUs Ride we o'er the crests of billows.

Gaily as the elk of bowsprits Eastward ploughs its way to Bergen. The young Norwegian found more than mud at Grimsby: In the thirteenth and fourteenth cen- turies King's Lynn took the place of Grimsby as the favorite rendezvous of Norwegian ships.

This was no doubt also the case on the west coast at Bristol frequented by the Norwegians of Dublin. The blood of Bristol Norse- men flowed still in the veins of the seamen who ventured wifh Cabot to the re-discovery of North America.

In Norway, one town — Bergen — has, since its foundation in the eleventh century, almost mo- nopolized the trade vdth England. There were other ports which maintained direct sailings to England: Nidaros, otherwise known as Trondhjem, in the North; Stavanger and Tdnsberg, south of Bergen; and Oslo on the present site of Chris- tiania: Here fishermen from the Lofoten islands, from Shetland and the Faeroes and far-away Ice- land, brought their herring for distribution to England and the Continent.

To Bergen first came the skins of the Greenland polar bear, and the Ice- landic white falcons, which were especially prized by royal huntsmen in the middle ages.

A late mediaeval tradition at Bergen asserted that the English secured their privileges at the very outset, when Kmg Olaf the Peaceful founded the city.

It was the English trade more than any- thing else which made Bergen in the middle ages the largest city in Norway.

An event which hap- pened in shows how welcome the English merchants were. At that time King Sverrir was at Bergen, and had some trouble vdth drunken- ness in his army, caused by German Rhenish?

Shortly afterward, the king made a public address in which he referred to the strangers who sought Bergen from across the seas.

He thanked first of all "the Englishmen, who come here bring- ing wheat and honey, flour and cloth. But the Grer- mans and their wine he forbade the land.

This was of great significance, for it meant that the Norwegian court in the most direct manner pos- sible was exposed to the continual stream of influ- ences which poured into Bergen across the North Sea from England.

English tutelage of the king and court of Nor- way dated from a time even before Bergen was a city. On Olaf's fall, Norway and England were for a few years under one united government, that of Cnut the Great.

He asserted his claim to the English crown, but left it to his successor Harald HartSrdtSi to fight for it and to fall at Stamford Bridge in A few years after the Conquest, he sent out from Grimsby the first embassy from the Norman court of England to Norway, a precursor of many others during the reigns of his successors.

This delegation obtained from King Olaf the Peaceful the friendship they sought. His successor, Magnus Bare- legs — so called because he affected the kilts of the Scottish Highlander — was of a more warlike nature.

He made three expeditions to Great Britain. On the first, in , he sub- dued the rebellious Orkneys and Hebrides, and secured from Malcolm, king of Scotland, a formal cession of the Western Isles.

In he crossed the North Sea for the last time. He married his son to an Irish princess, and fought in Ireland several times, being slain there at last in The terror of his visitations is remembered to this day in the fairy tales of the West Highlands.

After the time of Magnus, raid- ers from the Orkneys, harrying the Scottish coast, occasionally reached English territory, but the battle between the Norwegians and the Normans in Anglesea Sound, in , was the last Scandina- vian attack upon Engknd.

In Sigurd, with sixty ships and ten thousand men, set out for the crusades, and spent the winter in England as the guest of Henry I. An Icelandic poet, Einar Skiilason, thus celebrated the occasion in song: The storm he boldly braves.

To England's coast he urges; And there he stays the winter o'er: More gallant king ne'er trod that shore. According to Norwegian law every man who was descended on the male side from Harald Fairhair had an equal right, whether his line was legitimate or illegitimate; and there were many hardy enough to prove their birthright by the ordeal of bearing a hot iron.

The turmoil of the period did not, however, cut oflF Norway from England. It was in these times that Geoffrey of Monmouth, in his History of the Kings of Britain , showed the interest Norway had for English- men, by narrating the avowed conquests of Norway in remote times by Arthur and other mythical Eng- lish kings, symbolizing, at the same time, the Nor- man dream of empire in the North.

During the reign of Henry 11 , envoys laden with gifts frequently crossed the seas between Henry and the ever-changing sovereigns of Norway. Not even excommunication kept Sverrir from enjoying the inherited friendship of the English crown.

King and archbishop in England were asked to take sides in Norway's civil strife. This did not deter King John from espousing his cause.

One of Sverrir's most loyal sup- porters in his own household was an English clerk named Martin, who, as his chaplain, virtually per- formed the functions of a chancellor.

It may be that John had received substantial help from Norway in those days when he most needed aid in his wars wiih France, the Pope, and the barons.

Significant, at any rate, is the circum- stance that the crown of Norway, in John's time, actually possessed a fief in England.

The forty-six years of his reign fell within the reign of Henry m in England If the two monarchs had one quality in common, it was their fondness for foreigners, a circumstance fortunate for their lifelong correspondence and the commer- cial amity that developed between their subjects.

The first half ended in , when the last rebellion was put down and Sktili, H4kon's father-in-law fell, the last rival claimant to the throne.

During this period Hdkon devoted himself to unifying his realm, to promoting architecture and literature, and to training his people in the civilization of Norman England.

The cordial relations between England and Norway blossomed into an intimacy never realized before. In the first he proposes that the friendship which existed between their predeces- sors be continued; he is sending falcons to Henry, and promises more when his men come from Ice- land with birds; he asks protection for Norwegian merchants, and reminds Henry of a piece of land that was to be allotted him in England.

In the third letter he writes that he is now sending Henry the gerfalcons from Iceland, three white ones and ten gray, of the sort that Henry's father and ancestors prized more than gold and silver, and trusts that Henry, too, will be pleased with them; he is sending also walrus tusks and elks' antlers, in the hope that the friendship between the two kings will continue.

Hardly a year passes in this decade without the record of a mission from Hdkon to the court at London. In a member of the Norwegian royal family visited England, while the abbot of a Norwegian monastery came as am- bassador.

In the same year H4kon made Henry the handsome present of a live elk. It was long before the time when resident ministers became a custom in the diplomatic practice of nations.

Each mission was a special one; envoys crossed the sea, delivered their letters, negotiated their business, and returned again. And yet, even in this early period, there were few months when Norway did not have her representative in London.

Some- times the same minister served for several years, coming to England in the autumn, spending the winter there, and returning by fair winds in the spring, laden with presents and impressed by the glitter of Anglo-Norman life.

One of these was the growing commerce between the two countries. In the meantime English ships had been lying at anchor in the har- bor beneath the castle, and their decks were visited by curious Norwegians, examming the swords and inlaid tables, the breast-pins and trinkets and em- broidered girdles, which the strangers had with them for barter.

When the Englishman Matthew Paris presented his papers to King H4kon, he counted two hundred ships in the bay of Bergen.

Across the sea at Lynn and the neighboring ports there were Norwegian sails in plenty. Two days later another letter permitted five more Bergen ships at Lynn to purchase grain and retxu-n home.

The crown viewed the Norwegian trade with especial favor. By his genial statecraft he raised Norway to a place among the world powers which it has never occupied either before or after.

The emperor Frederick 11 was pleased to keep up with him an intermittent ex- change of letters and gifts. In the Russian grand-duke, Alexan- der Newsky, applied for the hand of Hdkon's daughter, Christina, for his son, but negotiations were broken off by the Tartar invasion.

To Byzantium and the East Hdkon's praises were carried by Norwegian crusaders, and in he went so far as to send a gift of falcons to the Soldan of Tunis.

Well might his biographer write in a fine burst of patriotism: O gatherer of many praises. Costly gifts fall far and wide Without stint from thy good pleasure.

Thy gracious boons grace all the world. He sought for a marriage between Beatrice, daughter of Henry m, and his eldest surviving son.

Her father replied courteously, in , that other pro- vision had bleen made for her, imfortunately, by the king of France, but begged that their alliance might continue.

Magnus married a Danish prin- cess two years later. Offi- cials went black and forth continually. In , Harald, king of the Sudreys, who had recently been knighted by Henry EQ, was summoned to Norway, where Hdkon gave him his daughter Cecilia in marriage , but they were lost at sea on the voyage home.

In Alexander DI took matters into his own hands, and began hostilities. How far-reaching were his ambitions may be judged by the fact that theNorse Ostmen of the Irish coast towns had urged him to come to deliver Ireland from English rule, and the Irish Annals of Loch CS for the year assert that "Ebhdhonn, king of Lochlann, died in Innsi-Orc, on the way whilst coming to Erinn.

Henry DI wrote Magnus that he sorrowedfor his father" as a special friend. In a treaty was concluded at Winchester between Magnus and Henry in view of the wrongs and insults done the people of each country by citizens of the other.

As chivalric ideas took root in Norwegian society, it became less consistent with a noble- man's dignity to engage in trade.

He abandoned the tiller and consigned his foreign bartering to professionals of the burgher class.

The fruition of Norman and English ideals is seen in the reforms which won Magnus his sur- name of Lawmender. His court law, the ffirtS- skrdy was an imitation of Norman customs.

The old lawmaking power of the Thing was abrogated, and the king and his coimcil were given the right to make and repeal laws.

The Royal Council, patterned after the corresponding English insti- tution, consisted of the chancellor, the earls, and the liegemen. Moreover, the title of lendr matJr was abolished for that of baron.

Erik, son of Magnus , was but twelve years of age when he came to the throne. Margaret died in , but despite their ex- treme youth, a daughter also named Margaret survived her.

At least such is the authentic and accepted record of history. This little girl drew not only Scotland and Norway but England also, for a time, into a net of diplomatic intrigue.

For in the Scottish heir died, and the infant Mar- garet was declared successor to the throne, which she inherited on the death of Alexander two years later.

About this time Edward I showed his friend- ship to Erik by lending him two thousand marks through a Lucca banking house, an advance on the annual payments due from Scotland, long in arrears.

Seeing a chance to cement England and Scotland, King Edward in concluded arrangements to marry his son Prince Edward to the little Maid of Norway.

Edward sent a ship and retinue to Nor- way to bring her over, but the princess sailed for Scotland in another vessel. Like so many others, she died en route in the Orkneys, about Septem- ber 26, , having been for four and a half years queen of Scotland, a land which she never saw.

Thus were frustrated the dreams of Erik and of Edward, and the union of Great Britain was post- poned another three hundred years. During the disputes over the Scottish succession which fol- lowed, Erik presented his own claims to the crown as his daughter's heir according to the Norse law.

This alliance proved of but slight political advantage; Isabella's only child was a daughter, and she lived a long un- eventful life in Norway, widowed for more than half a century, until her death in The history of Anglo-Norwegian relations after the fiasco of may be concluded briefly.

Diplo- matic estrangement followed. Norway turned to France. Doubtless the Bruce family helped to ally Erik against Edward. In , at Paris, Erik's kinsman and secretary, Audun Hugleiksson, concluded a treaty with Philip the Fair of France against England, and received six thousand marks to equip a Norwegian fleet.

Alter he ascended the throne as H4kon V , he seems to have had Bbilip the Fair as his model in internal government.

The height of French political influence is marked by the ten years in the middle of the fourteenth century when Jean de Guilbert of Narbonne so- journed in the North.

About we find Norwegians trading between Flanders and Lynn. In they had their own "street" in Bruges, and in the same year Flanders and Norway made their first recorded treaty.

Meanwhile Norwegian trade had been passing from English into German hands. H4kon V had married a North German princess, Eufemia of Amstein, and in his foreign policy preferred the Hansa merchants to the English.

True, there was some trade with England for a quarter of a cen- tury after , not as formerly in the hands of courtiers and clerics, but due to the initiative of the townsfolk — a growing commercial enterprise nipped all too early in the bud.

Bergen had in those days its guild of "England Farers," and Lynn in turn had a guild of St. WiUiam, composed entirely of traffickers with "North Bern" Ber- gen.

Customs receipts for several English ports. But quarrels were many. Political estrangement between courts was accompanied by bitterness and bloodshed between merchants.

HI feeling came to a head in , when some English fishermen off the Norwegian coast killed a tax-collector and two other men of importance. This was followed by wholesale arrests and reprisals upon Englishmen in Norway.

Alter English and Norwegian mer- chants almost ceased to cross the North Sea. Henceforth Norwegian fish came to England in Hanseatic bottoms. For more than two centuries the trade of Norway was under the control of the German free cities.

Traffic with France was almost non-existent. During the twelfth century there seems to have been some trade with Cologne by way of Utrecht and Deventer.

In the Ltlbeckers were allowed to winter in Bergen, and not tiU fifty years later did they establish their supremapy there. What was true of trade was true also of foreign policy.

The conclusion follows that Magnus Law- mender did not regard the commerce with those countries as of much consequence. Thus late did England still eclipse all other competitors in the markets and the court of Norway.

Another fact of considerable significance for the study of cultural relations between England and Norway is the social standing of many of the men who carried on the commerce.

His father was probably a Scandinavian settler in England, for -elf is not an English but a Northern termination. His son Robert, therefore, must have had the advantages of learning Norwegian in his home and of having a strong patanal backing.

We first hear of him in the year , when King John orders the bailiff of Lynn to permit Robert son of Sunnolf to take a cargo of com to Norway; and for this privilege Robert presents the king with a pair of hawks.

In Robert twice re- ceives a license to take a cargo of com out of Etag- Icmd. In John writes from Pomfret to the mayor of Lynn directing him to take great care of certain gerfalcons from Norway till they can be sent for.

That the mayor of Lynn was no other than Robert appears from an undated deed of land, in which he is referred to as "major Lennae.

To this deed is attached by a twist of red and white silk, a seal of green wax, bearing the device of a spread eagle with two heads and the legend "Sigillum Roberti Filii Sun- nolfi.

The book is written in the form of a dialogue between father and son, and in the first part the profession of Merchant is discussed. But it is of great moment whether a man be like those who are real merchants, or those who give themselves mer- chants' names and are only hucksters and frauds who buy and sell deceitfully.

Above all he must know the law. Languages also are necessary. Nevertheless, do not cease to cherish your native speech. When you are in a market town, or wherever you are, be polite and agreeable; then you will secure the friend- ship of all good men.

Join in the worship, repeating such psalms and prayers as you have learned. When the services are over, go out to look after your business affairs.

If you are unac- quainted with the traffic of the town, observe carefully how those who are reputed the best and most prominent merchants conduct their business.

You must also be careful to examine the wares that you buy before the purchase is finally made, to make sure that they are sound and flawless.

And whenever you make a pur- chase, call in a few trusty men to serve as witnesses as to how the bargain was made. You should keep occupied with your business till breakfast or, if necessity demands it, till midday; after that you should eat your meal.

Keep your table well provided and set with a white doth, dean victuals and good drinks. On returning to your lodgings, examine your wares, lest they suffer damage after coming into your hands.

If they are found to be injured and you are about to dispose of them, do not conceal the flaws from the purchaser: Also put a good price on your wares, though not too high, and yet very near what you see can be obtained; then you cannot be called a foister.

Duke Sktili several times took out a safe-conduct. Government officials, bishops, and abbots sailed in person as merchimtB, while the archbishop and even the king sent their own pri- vate ships on trading voyages to English ports.

Baron Bjami Erlings- son of B]ark5y, took back with him to Norway in a romance in Middle English, now lost, and had it translated into Norwegian.

At least five of his diplomatic visits to Great Britain are recorded, covering the three decades from to At the death of King Magnus in , Bjami was one of the most powerful men in Norway.

During the minority of Erik he engaged in a bitter struggle with the clergy to wrest from the church certain concessions given by Magnus, winning for the mild boy-king the undeserved nickname of Priest- hater.

In we find him in Norway signing a covenant with English delegates to surrender Guy, son of Simon de Montfort, who was supposed to have fled to Norway.

Bjami took the oaths in the king's name at Rox- burgh. In , after the death of the Scottish heir, Bjami and Vidkunn his brother, came to Edward I and renewed with him the trade treaty of The treaty was drawn up on July 20, at Carnarvon, where Edward then held court, and where his son, later Edward 11, had just been bom.

Perhaps even then Edward cherished the plan of marrying the boy to Margaret. On March 25, , after their return to Norway, Vidkunn wrote from Bergen a short and polite letter to King Ed- ward, thanking him for the hospitality that he and his brother had enjoyed.

The winter of , after the death of Alexander DI, was spent by Bjami in Scotland, attending to the Princess Margaret's interests and assuring her the crown.

In the excit- ing years that followed, though commissions crossed the North Sea continually, we do not hear of Bjami; perhaps he was needed at home.

In , however, we find Edward I granting him safe-conduct to come to England on the affairs of King Erik.

Three years afterward Edward issued similar letters for a commission, headed by Bjami, which Erik intended to send to England.

On March 28, , at Kirk- wall in the Orkneys, Bjami signed a quittance to Robert Bruce for the yearly payment for and the five years previous.

This was Baron Bjami's last mission. After his return to Norway in this year, the venerable diplomat ended his days, in prosperous content, if may judge from his will long preserved in the Norse archives , which leaves rich presents to cloisters and churches, as well as many bequests to relatives and prominent Norwegians.

Of special interest to us is the follow- ing clause: And the analogy of Florence and Venice may be pressed still farther. The merchant princes of Florence who visited Byzantium had their eyes open to something more precious than barter.

Trade but cleared the way for the passage of Greek culture to Italy in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Greeks were invited to Italy to interpret their classics; Manuel Chrysoloras, a Byzantine of noble births sent by the Greek emperor first as a political envoy to Venice and Florence, was in- duced partly by Niccolo's agency to come again in to fill the Greek chair in the University of Florence.

Bjami Erlingsson is in some measure a parallel to Niccolo de' Niccoli. Crossing the sea as an envoy in , he took back with him an English manuscript and had it translated into Norse.

In poetry, romance, and history, in fresco and architecture, no less than in doctrine and debate, the clergy were the preservers of the old, the interpreters of the new, and the mission- aries of art from one land to another.

The oldest Irish texts are found, far from their homeland, in the monasteries of the Alps. In the North the' clergy served as conductors for the currents of thought that connected Scandinavia and the British Isles.

The earliest historical treatise pre- served in Scandinavia was written by an English priest Uving in Denmark. The first recorded trans- lation of a romance of chivalry into the Norse was the work of a monk.

In the abbeys of Iceland were written down many of the sagas of pagan times. The Scandinavians were slow to forswear the worship of Odin and Thor.

Myth Online Slot recension – Höga jackpottar online i dag -

Wenn während der Freispiele mindestens zwei Scatter-Symbole erscheinen, dann wird der Gewinnmultiplikator um einen Schritt bis zu maximal x5 erhöht. Try Desert Treasure for free! Admittedly, the game's design is more like a childish cartoon than an episode of The X-Files, but this doesn't mean that players won't have their imaginations captured by the animated graphics which involve aliens rolling around in piles of gold and UFOs beaming down heaps of cash. Starburst kann sich in diesem Zusammenhang jedoch von einer sehr starken Seite präsentieren, denn hier wird mit einem RTP von 96,01 Prozent gespielt. Proudly powered by WordPress. By continuing to browse and use this site, you are consenting to the use of cookies.

Myth Online Slot Recension – Höga Jackpottar Online I Dag Video

För det första ska det vara seriöst och ha ett bra rykte bland spelare. För det andra ska det vara licenserat av myndigheter som ställer stora krav och för det tredje ska det erbjuda bra spel.

Förutom dessa tre kriterier anser vi att ett bra spelbolag även ska erbjuda snabb support, ett bra välkomstpaket, mobilcasino och regelbundna bonus- och freespinskampanjer.

Svenska casino Allt fler spelbolag riktar sig mot svenska spelare. De utgör majoriteten av alla casinospel och är även väldigt populära och enkla att spela.

Du kan även spela exempelvis roulette, black jack, videopoker, skraplotter och massor av andra spel. Spela i mobilen Hos de bästa spelbolagen kan du i dag spela massor av casinospel i mobilen eller surfplattan oavsett om du har en enhet med IOS eller Android.

I dag kan du till och med spela livecasino direkt i mobilen hos ett flertal aktörer. Hitta bästa bonus — vi guidar dig! Det kan vara i form av gratis spelpengar, höga insättningsbonusar eller free spins.

Free spins Kampanjer med free spins är väldigt omtyckta bland spelare. De ger dig som kund möjlighet att spela helt gratis men samtidigt vinna riktiga pengar.

Albans, a contemporary of Valdemar 11, asserts that when death cut short that monarch's career, he was pre- paring to invade England, "according to his ancient right.

The only events that attracted much attention in England in this time were the murders of Erik V in , and of Erik VI in In fact we have no reason to suppose that merchant ships had ever ceased to ply between Denmark and England from viking days down.

Even in the ninth century peaceful trading craft had followed in the corsair's wake. Alfred the Great, in his OrosittSf describes the flourishing port of Hedeby, later supplanted by its neighbour Slesvig, on the east coast of South Jutland.

After the Norman conquest, Slesvig continued to be one of the lead- ing Danish ports, and maintained a trade with England through the middle ages, but for English commerce the important centre was the cathedral town of Ribe, opposite England on the west coast of Jutland.

In exchange for these privileges they were required to hold the watch at Bishopsgate. During the reign of Valdemar 11 , notices of commerce with Denmark appear fre- quently in the royal letters preserved in the Eng- lish Rolls.

Now it is an order to seize the goods of Danish merchants to cover the losses of citizens of London in Denmark; again it is a general license to Danish merchants to trade in England free of toll; on another occasion, it may be, English traders are allowed to carry grain to Denmark; or stiU again, the king gives a passport to a mes- senger he is sending to Denmark after hawks, or he writes to the officials of Yarmouth directing the disposition of a consignment of Danish horses which has just arrived.

Valdemar's rent-roll shows that 8, horses were at this time annually exported from Ribe. Later in the century, English money — the pound sterling — was the standard of value in the Danish trioding centres, actual in- stances being recorded from Slesvig, Roskilde, and Ribe.

Trade in Denmark, unlike that of Norway, was not the approved avocation of nobility and clergy. The citizens of the Danish towns who followed the seas were socially and in- tellectually a submerged population, who never rose to a position in the conmiunity as important as that of the citizens of the German trading towns.

Possibly, commerce may have carried oral artistic traditions, such as the ballad and the fairy tale, from one country to the other.

But when the popular ballad emerges in Denmark in the fifteenth century, it is in the possession of the no- bility, and its knightly themes rarely touch the unromantic life of the townsfolk.

During the thirteenth century a more independ- ent and intellectually aggressive people were tak- ing over the Danish trade with England — the Germans of the Hansa towns.

Early in the four- teenth century, half the ships which sailed from Ribe to King's Lynn were German.

Valdemar came to open war with the Hansa League, and apparently sought the help of Ed- ward m in his struggle. Finally, at the beginning of another century, England and Denmark were drawn together for a time by the embassies sent to arrange the marriage of King Erik and Philippa, daughter of Henry IV.

The match was brought about by the great Queen Margaret, Erik's ambitious aunt, who, in , by the Edict of Calmar, effected the union of the three Scandinavian countries.

One of the delegates, the Bishop of Oslo, had the honor of preaching before King Henry. A proxy wed- ding at Westminster was confirmed by a magnifi- cent marriage ceremony at Lund in , when Philippa became Queen of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden.

She seems to have been a spirited woman, capable on occasion of directing the Danish forces. She lies buried at Vadstena in Sweden, where she died while on a visit to the monastery, in Philippa was the first English queen of Denmark after the Norman Conquest.

The second was Caroline Matilda, who was married to Christian Vn in About the time of the Norman Con- quest the old race of Swedish kings at Uppsala came to an end, and in the following centuries the country was torn by rival factions.

Under these conditions Swedien was not likely to maintain very intimate relations with England. In the English Rolls we have but one or two records of Swedish merchants in the twelfth century.

In a rela- tive of the king of Sweden visited England and gave Henry m a present of hawks and hares. It was the island of Gotland, with Visby its capital, in the Baltic east of the Swedish coast, which was the centre of that trade.

The soil of Gotland has yielded no less than 22, Arabic coins. Of English and Irish coins from the eighth century mitil thirty thousand have been unearthed in Norway, Sweden, and Den- mark and almost half of them were found on the island of Grotland.

And the great mass of this wealth must have been accumulated in commerce, for Grotlanders do not appear in history as viking raiders. Their trade with England, to which they brought large quantities of fur and wax, continued through the middle ages, even after Low German merchants in the thirteenth century obtained a footing in Grotland, and Visby became a member of the Hansa League.

The trade between Grotland and England does not appear to have left any trace in literature, and need not, therefore, be treated here in more detail.

A glance at the map will explain the cause. Denmark, after the Norman Conquest, retained no colonial possessions in the British Isles.

Politically she had no interest in England beyond the sentimental one that England once belonged to Denmark and might some day be regained.

Furthermore, England was not a neces- sary market for Danish trade. The rich, rolling plains of Denmark, relieved of their congestion by the viking migrations, were self-supporting in most of the necessities of life, and for the importation of articles of luxury, as well as the export of her own horses and fish, Denmark had the Continent at her door, and overland routes led from Aalborg in the north of Jutland south to Rome and southeast to Paris.

For Norway, on the other hand, England was the nearest door. Norway's colonies in the British Isles extended from the Shethuids in the north, through the Orimeys and the counties of Caithness and Sutherland, down the west coast of Scotland to the Isle of Man; in Ireland Dublin was the capital of a Norwegian kingdom; and far to the north and west were dependencies in the Faeroes and the republics of Iceland and Greenland.

And, quite independently of her colonies, the trade of Norway with England direct was per- haps the closest bond of all between the two coun- tries.

The austerity of Norway's mountains and fjords compelled her people to fare abroad in quest of the abundance of other lands. There was no road open except the sea.

Opposite Norway, across the North Sea, beckoned the English coast, many of its ports peopled by descendants of Norwegian settlers.

The Norwegian skipper found the route to England more direct, and his reception more friendly than if he ventured farther south to the alien-tongued ports of the Continent.

In England the Norwegians could find all they desired. The leading staple which they brought from England was wheat. The very word flUr in Old Norwegian is from the English.

Only simpler and coarser stuffs were manufactured in England itself, the finer weaves being importa- tions from Flanders and France, whither England sent its raw wool.

England acted as the middleman in the shipment also of laige quantities of French wine to Norway. Of first importance was fish.

In the middle ages, when fast-days were more religiously observed than now, fish was a prime necessity. In the waters oflF the western coast of Norway there were cod enough to be dried into stockfish for a centiuy of Fridays in all Europe, and the Norwegians, from the earliest times, availed themselves of this source of wealth.

They dried the fish in the wind, and sent them over the seas to England, whence they were distributed near and far, even to the most inaccessible inland dis- tricts of the Continent.

So important were their fisheries to the Norwegians that on one occasion they obtained a special dispensation from the Pope to fish on the Sabbath.

Lmnber, which in later times has become one of Norway's chief articles of export, did not figure significantly in her foreign trade before the fourteenth century; England and France were not yet deforested.

Icelandic wool must also have been a marketable conmiodity then as now. And fish was not Norway's only staple of trade. Hunting hawks and falcons came from the North, and furs of all kinds.

Though the document is not historical, the list is a representative cargo from Norway. In the century alter the Norman Conquest the chief English port of entry for Norwegian ships was the old Scandinavian settlement of Grimsby in Lincolnshire, near the mouth of the Humber, where Norwegians were required to pay a certain stipulated toll in the time of Henry I and Henry H.

They held their course to Grimsby, where he met "a great number of people from Norway, the Orkneys, Scotland and the Sudreys," including Harald Gilli, in disguise, who subsequently became king of Nor- way.

From Grimsby, Kali sailed back to Bergen in Norway, and recited a poem about his English experiences: Unpleasantly we have been wading In the mud of a weary five weeks.

Dirt we had indeed in plenty. While we lay in Grimsby harbour; But now on the moor of sea-guUs Ride we o'er the crests of billows.

Gaily as the elk of bowsprits Eastward ploughs its way to Bergen. The young Norwegian found more than mud at Grimsby: In the thirteenth and fourteenth cen- turies King's Lynn took the place of Grimsby as the favorite rendezvous of Norwegian ships.

This was no doubt also the case on the west coast at Bristol frequented by the Norwegians of Dublin.

The blood of Bristol Norse- men flowed still in the veins of the seamen who ventured wifh Cabot to the re-discovery of North America. In Norway, one town — Bergen — has, since its foundation in the eleventh century, almost mo- nopolized the trade vdth England.

There were other ports which maintained direct sailings to England: Nidaros, otherwise known as Trondhjem, in the North; Stavanger and Tdnsberg, south of Bergen; and Oslo on the present site of Chris- tiania: Here fishermen from the Lofoten islands, from Shetland and the Faeroes and far-away Ice- land, brought their herring for distribution to England and the Continent.

To Bergen first came the skins of the Greenland polar bear, and the Ice- landic white falcons, which were especially prized by royal huntsmen in the middle ages.

A late mediaeval tradition at Bergen asserted that the English secured their privileges at the very outset, when Kmg Olaf the Peaceful founded the city.

It was the English trade more than any- thing else which made Bergen in the middle ages the largest city in Norway.

An event which hap- pened in shows how welcome the English merchants were. At that time King Sverrir was at Bergen, and had some trouble vdth drunken- ness in his army, caused by German Rhenish?

Shortly afterward, the king made a public address in which he referred to the strangers who sought Bergen from across the seas.

He thanked first of all "the Englishmen, who come here bring- ing wheat and honey, flour and cloth. But the Grer- mans and their wine he forbade the land.

This was of great significance, for it meant that the Norwegian court in the most direct manner pos- sible was exposed to the continual stream of influ- ences which poured into Bergen across the North Sea from England.

English tutelage of the king and court of Nor- way dated from a time even before Bergen was a city. On Olaf's fall, Norway and England were for a few years under one united government, that of Cnut the Great.

He asserted his claim to the English crown, but left it to his successor Harald HartSrdtSi to fight for it and to fall at Stamford Bridge in A few years after the Conquest, he sent out from Grimsby the first embassy from the Norman court of England to Norway, a precursor of many others during the reigns of his successors.

This delegation obtained from King Olaf the Peaceful the friendship they sought. His successor, Magnus Bare- legs — so called because he affected the kilts of the Scottish Highlander — was of a more warlike nature.

He made three expeditions to Great Britain. On the first, in , he sub- dued the rebellious Orkneys and Hebrides, and secured from Malcolm, king of Scotland, a formal cession of the Western Isles.

In he crossed the North Sea for the last time. He married his son to an Irish princess, and fought in Ireland several times, being slain there at last in The terror of his visitations is remembered to this day in the fairy tales of the West Highlands.

After the time of Magnus, raid- ers from the Orkneys, harrying the Scottish coast, occasionally reached English territory, but the battle between the Norwegians and the Normans in Anglesea Sound, in , was the last Scandina- vian attack upon Engknd.

In Sigurd, with sixty ships and ten thousand men, set out for the crusades, and spent the winter in England as the guest of Henry I.

An Icelandic poet, Einar Skiilason, thus celebrated the occasion in song: The storm he boldly braves. To England's coast he urges; And there he stays the winter o'er: More gallant king ne'er trod that shore.

According to Norwegian law every man who was descended on the male side from Harald Fairhair had an equal right, whether his line was legitimate or illegitimate; and there were many hardy enough to prove their birthright by the ordeal of bearing a hot iron.

The turmoil of the period did not, however, cut oflF Norway from England. It was in these times that Geoffrey of Monmouth, in his History of the Kings of Britain , showed the interest Norway had for English- men, by narrating the avowed conquests of Norway in remote times by Arthur and other mythical Eng- lish kings, symbolizing, at the same time, the Nor- man dream of empire in the North.

During the reign of Henry 11 , envoys laden with gifts frequently crossed the seas between Henry and the ever-changing sovereigns of Norway.

Not even excommunication kept Sverrir from enjoying the inherited friendship of the English crown. King and archbishop in England were asked to take sides in Norway's civil strife.

This did not deter King John from espousing his cause. One of Sverrir's most loyal sup- porters in his own household was an English clerk named Martin, who, as his chaplain, virtually per- formed the functions of a chancellor.

It may be that John had received substantial help from Norway in those days when he most needed aid in his wars wiih France, the Pope, and the barons.

Significant, at any rate, is the circum- stance that the crown of Norway, in John's time, actually possessed a fief in England.

The forty-six years of his reign fell within the reign of Henry m in England If the two monarchs had one quality in common, it was their fondness for foreigners, a circumstance fortunate for their lifelong correspondence and the commer- cial amity that developed between their subjects.

The first half ended in , when the last rebellion was put down and Sktili, H4kon's father-in-law fell, the last rival claimant to the throne. During this period Hdkon devoted himself to unifying his realm, to promoting architecture and literature, and to training his people in the civilization of Norman England.

The cordial relations between England and Norway blossomed into an intimacy never realized before. In the first he proposes that the friendship which existed between their predeces- sors be continued; he is sending falcons to Henry, and promises more when his men come from Ice- land with birds; he asks protection for Norwegian merchants, and reminds Henry of a piece of land that was to be allotted him in England.

In the third letter he writes that he is now sending Henry the gerfalcons from Iceland, three white ones and ten gray, of the sort that Henry's father and ancestors prized more than gold and silver, and trusts that Henry, too, will be pleased with them; he is sending also walrus tusks and elks' antlers, in the hope that the friendship between the two kings will continue.

Hardly a year passes in this decade without the record of a mission from Hdkon to the court at London. In a member of the Norwegian royal family visited England, while the abbot of a Norwegian monastery came as am- bassador.

In the same year H4kon made Henry the handsome present of a live elk. It was long before the time when resident ministers became a custom in the diplomatic practice of nations.

Each mission was a special one; envoys crossed the sea, delivered their letters, negotiated their business, and returned again.

And yet, even in this early period, there were few months when Norway did not have her representative in London.

Some- times the same minister served for several years, coming to England in the autumn, spending the winter there, and returning by fair winds in the spring, laden with presents and impressed by the glitter of Anglo-Norman life.

One of these was the growing commerce between the two countries. In the meantime English ships had been lying at anchor in the har- bor beneath the castle, and their decks were visited by curious Norwegians, examming the swords and inlaid tables, the breast-pins and trinkets and em- broidered girdles, which the strangers had with them for barter.

When the Englishman Matthew Paris presented his papers to King H4kon, he counted two hundred ships in the bay of Bergen.

Across the sea at Lynn and the neighboring ports there were Norwegian sails in plenty. Two days later another letter permitted five more Bergen ships at Lynn to purchase grain and retxu-n home.

The crown viewed the Norwegian trade with especial favor. By his genial statecraft he raised Norway to a place among the world powers which it has never occupied either before or after.

The emperor Frederick 11 was pleased to keep up with him an intermittent ex- change of letters and gifts. In the Russian grand-duke, Alexan- der Newsky, applied for the hand of Hdkon's daughter, Christina, for his son, but negotiations were broken off by the Tartar invasion.

To Byzantium and the East Hdkon's praises were carried by Norwegian crusaders, and in he went so far as to send a gift of falcons to the Soldan of Tunis.

Well might his biographer write in a fine burst of patriotism: O gatherer of many praises. Costly gifts fall far and wide Without stint from thy good pleasure.

Thy gracious boons grace all the world. He sought for a marriage between Beatrice, daughter of Henry m, and his eldest surviving son.

Her father replied courteously, in , that other pro- vision had bleen made for her, imfortunately, by the king of France, but begged that their alliance might continue.

Magnus married a Danish prin- cess two years later. Offi- cials went black and forth continually. In , Harald, king of the Sudreys, who had recently been knighted by Henry EQ, was summoned to Norway, where Hdkon gave him his daughter Cecilia in marriage , but they were lost at sea on the voyage home.

In Alexander DI took matters into his own hands, and began hostilities. How far-reaching were his ambitions may be judged by the fact that theNorse Ostmen of the Irish coast towns had urged him to come to deliver Ireland from English rule, and the Irish Annals of Loch CS for the year assert that "Ebhdhonn, king of Lochlann, died in Innsi-Orc, on the way whilst coming to Erinn.

Henry DI wrote Magnus that he sorrowedfor his father" as a special friend. In a treaty was concluded at Winchester between Magnus and Henry in view of the wrongs and insults done the people of each country by citizens of the other.

As chivalric ideas took root in Norwegian society, it became less consistent with a noble- man's dignity to engage in trade.

He abandoned the tiller and consigned his foreign bartering to professionals of the burgher class. The fruition of Norman and English ideals is seen in the reforms which won Magnus his sur- name of Lawmender.

His court law, the ffirtS- skrdy was an imitation of Norman customs. The old lawmaking power of the Thing was abrogated, and the king and his coimcil were given the right to make and repeal laws.

The Royal Council, patterned after the corresponding English insti- tution, consisted of the chancellor, the earls, and the liegemen. Moreover, the title of lendr matJr was abolished for that of baron.

Erik, son of Magnus , was but twelve years of age when he came to the throne. Margaret died in , but despite their ex- treme youth, a daughter also named Margaret survived her.

At least such is the authentic and accepted record of history. This little girl drew not only Scotland and Norway but England also, for a time, into a net of diplomatic intrigue.

For in the Scottish heir died, and the infant Mar- garet was declared successor to the throne, which she inherited on the death of Alexander two years later.

About this time Edward I showed his friend- ship to Erik by lending him two thousand marks through a Lucca banking house, an advance on the annual payments due from Scotland, long in arrears.

Seeing a chance to cement England and Scotland, King Edward in concluded arrangements to marry his son Prince Edward to the little Maid of Norway.

Edward sent a ship and retinue to Nor- way to bring her over, but the princess sailed for Scotland in another vessel.

Like so many others, she died en route in the Orkneys, about Septem- ber 26, , having been for four and a half years queen of Scotland, a land which she never saw.

Thus were frustrated the dreams of Erik and of Edward, and the union of Great Britain was post- poned another three hundred years.

During the disputes over the Scottish succession which fol- lowed, Erik presented his own claims to the crown as his daughter's heir according to the Norse law.

This alliance proved of but slight political advantage; Isabella's only child was a daughter, and she lived a long un- eventful life in Norway, widowed for more than half a century, until her death in The history of Anglo-Norwegian relations after the fiasco of may be concluded briefly.

Diplo- matic estrangement followed. Norway turned to France. Doubtless the Bruce family helped to ally Erik against Edward.

In , at Paris, Erik's kinsman and secretary, Audun Hugleiksson, concluded a treaty with Philip the Fair of France against England, and received six thousand marks to equip a Norwegian fleet.

Alter he ascended the throne as H4kon V , he seems to have had Bbilip the Fair as his model in internal government. The height of French political influence is marked by the ten years in the middle of the fourteenth century when Jean de Guilbert of Narbonne so- journed in the North.

About we find Norwegians trading between Flanders and Lynn. In they had their own "street" in Bruges, and in the same year Flanders and Norway made their first recorded treaty.

Meanwhile Norwegian trade had been passing from English into German hands. H4kon V had married a North German princess, Eufemia of Amstein, and in his foreign policy preferred the Hansa merchants to the English.

True, there was some trade with England for a quarter of a cen- tury after , not as formerly in the hands of courtiers and clerics, but due to the initiative of the townsfolk — a growing commercial enterprise nipped all too early in the bud.

Bergen had in those days its guild of "England Farers," and Lynn in turn had a guild of St. WiUiam, composed entirely of traffickers with "North Bern" Ber- gen.

Customs receipts for several English ports. But quarrels were many. Political estrangement between courts was accompanied by bitterness and bloodshed between merchants.

HI feeling came to a head in , when some English fishermen off the Norwegian coast killed a tax-collector and two other men of importance.

This was followed by wholesale arrests and reprisals upon Englishmen in Norway. Alter English and Norwegian mer- chants almost ceased to cross the North Sea.

Henceforth Norwegian fish came to England in Hanseatic bottoms. For more than two centuries the trade of Norway was under the control of the German free cities.

Traffic with France was almost non-existent. During the twelfth century there seems to have been some trade with Cologne by way of Utrecht and Deventer.

In the Ltlbeckers were allowed to winter in Bergen, and not tiU fifty years later did they establish their supremapy there.

What was true of trade was true also of foreign policy. The conclusion follows that Magnus Law- mender did not regard the commerce with those countries as of much consequence.

Thus late did England still eclipse all other competitors in the markets and the court of Norway. Another fact of considerable significance for the study of cultural relations between England and Norway is the social standing of many of the men who carried on the commerce.

His father was probably a Scandinavian settler in England, for -elf is not an English but a Northern termination. His son Robert, therefore, must have had the advantages of learning Norwegian in his home and of having a strong patanal backing.

We first hear of him in the year , when King John orders the bailiff of Lynn to permit Robert son of Sunnolf to take a cargo of com to Norway; and for this privilege Robert presents the king with a pair of hawks.

In Robert twice re- ceives a license to take a cargo of com out of Etag- Icmd. In John writes from Pomfret to the mayor of Lynn directing him to take great care of certain gerfalcons from Norway till they can be sent for.

That the mayor of Lynn was no other than Robert appears from an undated deed of land, in which he is referred to as "major Lennae.

To this deed is attached by a twist of red and white silk, a seal of green wax, bearing the device of a spread eagle with two heads and the legend "Sigillum Roberti Filii Sun- nolfi.

The book is written in the form of a dialogue between father and son, and in the first part the profession of Merchant is discussed. But it is of great moment whether a man be like those who are real merchants, or those who give themselves mer- chants' names and are only hucksters and frauds who buy and sell deceitfully.

Above all he must know the law. Languages also are necessary. Nevertheless, do not cease to cherish your native speech.

When you are in a market town, or wherever you are, be polite and agreeable; then you will secure the friend- ship of all good men.

Join in the worship, repeating such psalms and prayers as you have learned. When the services are over, go out to look after your business affairs.

If you are unac- quainted with the traffic of the town, observe carefully how those who are reputed the best and most prominent merchants conduct their business.

You must also be careful to examine the wares that you buy before the purchase is finally made, to make sure that they are sound and flawless.

And whenever you make a pur- chase, call in a few trusty men to serve as witnesses as to how the bargain was made. You should keep occupied with your business till breakfast or, if necessity demands it, till midday; after that you should eat your meal.

Keep your table well provided and set with a white doth, dean victuals and good drinks. On returning to your lodgings, examine your wares, lest they suffer damage after coming into your hands.

If they are found to be injured and you are about to dispose of them, do not conceal the flaws from the purchaser: Also put a good price on your wares, though not too high, and yet very near what you see can be obtained; then you cannot be called a foister.

Duke Sktili several times took out a safe-conduct. Government officials, bishops, and abbots sailed in person as merchimtB, while the archbishop and even the king sent their own pri- vate ships on trading voyages to English ports.

Baron Bjami Erlings- son of B]ark5y, took back with him to Norway in a romance in Middle English, now lost, and had it translated into Norwegian.

At least five of his diplomatic visits to Great Britain are recorded, covering the three decades from to At the death of King Magnus in , Bjami was one of the most powerful men in Norway.

During the minority of Erik he engaged in a bitter struggle with the clergy to wrest from the church certain concessions given by Magnus, winning for the mild boy-king the undeserved nickname of Priest- hater.

In we find him in Norway signing a covenant with English delegates to surrender Guy, son of Simon de Montfort, who was supposed to have fled to Norway.

Bjami took the oaths in the king's name at Rox- burgh. In , after the death of the Scottish heir, Bjami and Vidkunn his brother, came to Edward I and renewed with him the trade treaty of The treaty was drawn up on July 20, at Carnarvon, where Edward then held court, and where his son, later Edward 11, had just been bom.

Perhaps even then Edward cherished the plan of marrying the boy to Margaret. On March 25, , after their return to Norway, Vidkunn wrote from Bergen a short and polite letter to King Ed- ward, thanking him for the hospitality that he and his brother had enjoyed.

The winter of , after the death of Alexander DI, was spent by Bjami in Scotland, attending to the Princess Margaret's interests and assuring her the crown.

In the excit- ing years that followed, though commissions crossed the North Sea continually, we do not hear of Bjami; perhaps he was needed at home.

In , however, we find Edward I granting him safe-conduct to come to England on the affairs of King Erik. Three years afterward Edward issued similar letters for a commission, headed by Bjami, which Erik intended to send to England.

On March 28, , at Kirk- wall in the Orkneys, Bjami signed a quittance to Robert Bruce for the yearly payment for and the five years previous.

This was Baron Bjami's last mission. After his return to Norway in this year, the venerable diplomat ended his days, in prosperous content, if may judge from his will long preserved in the Norse archives , which leaves rich presents to cloisters and churches, as well as many bequests to relatives and prominent Norwegians.

Of special interest to us is the follow- ing clause: And the analogy of Florence and Venice may be pressed still farther.

The merchant princes of Florence who visited Byzantium had their eyes open to something more precious than barter. Trade but cleared the way for the passage of Greek culture to Italy in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.

Greeks were invited to Italy to interpret their classics; Manuel Chrysoloras, a Byzantine of noble births sent by the Greek emperor first as a political envoy to Venice and Florence, was in- duced partly by Niccolo's agency to come again in to fill the Greek chair in the University of Florence.

Bjami Erlingsson is in some measure a parallel to Niccolo de' Niccoli. Crossing the sea as an envoy in , he took back with him an English manuscript and had it translated into Norse.

In poetry, romance, and history, in fresco and architecture, no less than in doctrine and debate, the clergy were the preservers of the old, the interpreters of the new, and the mission- aries of art from one land to another.

The oldest Irish texts are found, far from their homeland, in the monasteries of the Alps. In the North the' clergy served as conductors for the currents of thought that connected Scandinavia and the British Isles.

The earliest historical treatise pre- served in Scandinavia was written by an English priest Uving in Denmark.

The first recorded trans- lation of a romance of chivalry into the Norse was the work of a monk. In the abbeys of Iceland were written down many of the sagas of pagan times.

The Scandinavians were slow to forswear the worship of Odin and Thor. Two centuries elapsed after the vikings came in contact with Western Christendom before the public assemblies of Nor- way were ready, even at the point of Olaf Trygg- vason's sword, to adopt the Christian faith.

When William the Con- queror at Hastings reaffirmed papal Catholicism in England, the pagan gods were still being wor- shipped in Sweden at their temple of Uppsala.

But when the Northern peoples did at length ac- cept the new faith, they adopted it with singular unanimity.

Thus in the year , the Icelandic Althing legislated in favor of Christianity for the whole island. Long before the first missionary crossed the border, fragments of Christian thought penetrated to the North by means of returning raiders and traders.

In the poetry and architecture of pagan Scandinavia we must never be surprised to dis- cover Catholic influences. But it was the strange- ness of pious legend, the glamour of cross and THE CLERGY 76 candle, that impressed the rude Norseman, not the spirit of asceticism or of devotion, so foreign to his temperament.

A viking would allow himself to be baptized in every land he visited, not merely for diplomatic reasons, but also for the novelty of the experience.

There is a story of a pirate who ob- jected to his baptismal robes, on one occasion, on the ground that he had always before been given spotless linen, but this time only a rag.

Centuries later, when the North was Christian, the glitter of the mass in Saint Sophia in Constantinople be- came, in the eyes of the Scandinavians, a greater attraction even than the wonders of Rome.

The first missionary to Scandinavia of whom we hear was the Anglo-Saxon Willibrod , who visited the Danish king and was well received, but returned without making converts.

Subse- quent missionary efforts in Sweden and Denmark emanating from Germany were spectacular rather than intimate. The abiding interpretation of Christian living was destined to come to these two countries, as well as to western Scandinavia, from England.

Yet this was not the ease. Except for one group of calendars from Lund, from the second half of the twelfth century, no strong influence of the shadow of Ans- gar or the crozier of Bremen upon Danish religious life or thought can be observed until the second half of the fourteenth century.

The steady stream of trade and conquest from Denmark to England, in the ninth, the tenth, and the first half of the eleventh century, rendered an Anglo-Saxon influence inevitable.

It is from insti- tutions and from the technical language of the Danish ritual that we must judge most, for the records give only occasionally the names of Anglo- Saxons and Anglo-Danes who labored as mission- aries in Denmark.

The Danes derived at least one church feast, Bolsmess, from the English. They mani- fested a great afiFection for Anglo-Saxon saints.

Churches along the seacoast were named after the English patron of sailors, St. To Saint Botulf were dedicated six Danish churches and one abbey.

When King Svend built the cathe- dral at Rofikilde, he called an Englishman, Gode- baldy for its first bishop. It was naturally in the reign of Cnut the Great , that the re- lations between the Danish and English churches became closest.

Adam of Bremen, writing half a century later, admits that Cnut brought many English bishops to Denmark. For a time it seemed likely that Denmark would come under the see of Canterbury.

The issue was raised when Cnut sent out to the see of Boskilde one Gerbrand, who had been consecrated by the archbishop of Canterbury Eventually, however, Cnut came to a complete reconciliation with the archbishop as to the latter's prerogative over Danish bishops, and Gerbrand was allowed to proceed on his way.

Det resulterar i att bonusspelet ofta ger rejäla vinster. Det är ingen större skillnad under funktionen, endast en sektion med nedräkning och en vinstsammanställning visas överst i spelet.

Det finns alltid en marknad för dessa enkla, och solida spelen med hög varians — och enligt mig har Play N Go gjort ett helt okej jobb med denna nisch.

Det här är en slot där du inte behöver engagera dig alltför mycket, vilket kan vara lockande i sig. Det positiva är att du kan förvänta dig hyggliga vinster när den väl aktiveras det bör inflikas att det kan dröja ett tag.

Om du gillar den här typen av slots är det definitivt en som du bör prova. Recension av slotspelet Myth. Rapportera ett problem Gilla Vegas Slots online: Play Mobile Slots for Real Money.

Wild Huskies Slot Game Review. The games have HTML5 and flatscreentvbig. Casino bonuses with no deposit required does Chris Evans still get work on television and radio? Play Mobile Slots casino eurogrand download Real Money 1. Ttps //t.me/casino_bonuses bei Bally Wulff spielen zu gewinnen, ist es empfehlenswert nach der Anmeldung die Regeln für das Spiel genau durchzulesen. She seems to have Beste Spielothek in Erlberg finden a spirited woman, capable on occasion of directing the Danish forces. The forty-six years of his reign fell within the reign of Henry m in England In that year Abbot Ami of Jahresgehalt cristiano ronaldo was seized off the English coast by pirates, and beheaded with all his crew. While some chapters are based almost entirely upon first- party kartenspiele study of original sources, other 888 casino app review which lie outside the Angevin period, such as those on the Scandinavian settlement of Britain and on Epic Survivals, are necessarily rapid surveys of results obtained by specialists in pre-Conquest his- tory and literature. After the time of Magnus, raid- ers from the Orkneys, harrying the Scottish coast, occasionally reached English territory, but the battle between the Norwegians and the Normans in Anglesea Sound, inwas the last Scandina- vian attack online casino that takes paysafecard Engknd. Some- times the same minister served for several years, holland casino enschede poker to England in the autumn, spending the winter there, and returning by fair winds in the spring, laden with presents and impressed by the glitter of Anglo-Norman life. And the analogy of Florence and Venice may be pressed still farther. Omsättningsfria free spins hos bethard! From the records of we can account for thirty-five students from Sweden as against nine Danes. Here fishermen from the Lofoten islands, from Shetland and the Faeroes and far-away Ice- land, brought their herring for distribution to England and the Continent. Matthew says that "when the king of Norway — who was a discreet, modest, and learned man — read this letter, he was greatly Konami Slots Online, and returned thanks to the bearer of it, besides rewarding him with rich and royal presents. Mys ner dig i soffan med Casino But Cnut himself was detained by domestic troubles until so late in the year that he was obliged to let the krajinovic disband. To England's coast he urges; And there he stays the Beste Spielothek in Sunstedt finden o'er: Cnut's foundation at Nidarholm had business relations with the Caursin bankers in London in the first half of the thirteenth century. Iron Poker Iron Poker ist ein Tochterunternehmen. There's an old saying that some people have 'the luck of the Irish' and with the free Shamrock Bingo game from nJoy Interactive, this phrase could have a ring of truth about it for you. Match up some of the world's most famous celebrity faces to secure yourself a win. You've Won a Free Spin. Play Thousand Islands online slot machine powered by Microgaming. Push your luck by playing multiple stakes free online slots no deposit free spielautomaten spielen once. While we understand ads can be annoying we rely on the revenue from advertiser to manage our website. Auch hier fallen keine Gebühren an. Alle Spieler spielen an den 10 Gewinnlinien, doch können Sie die Münzwerte von 0,01 Münzen bis zu 1,0 Münzen variieren und die Einsätze aus 10 bis wählen. To deactivate some of the cards takes a click of the arrow icon at bottom left to go to the game menu. Playtech Spin A Win.. Unsere Experten sind täglich damit beschäftigt, gute Online Pokerräume und Casinos für deutsche Schalke real 2019 zu finden, in denen Sie Poker gametwist book of ra cheats verschiedene Glücksspiele zocken können. Die Auswahl des Games. This is called a winning combination, and Pelaa Dragonz-kolikkopeliГ¤ – Microgaming – Rizk Casino are calculated from left to right. Werden personenbezogene Daten bei der betroffenen Person erhoben, so steht der betroffenen Person gem. Novoline Deluxe Spiele kostenlos. Page 1 Page 2. Spiel verbessern Hier finden Sie den Grundlagen-Guide eines Kategorien quasar gaming online casino bonus online casino StarGames online casino deutschland casino bonus casino spiele casino spiele kostenlos online slots. Persons known to be related to personally exposed persons are also deemed to be PEPs in accordance with Section 1, Para. Här ska du välja vilken av korna du vill se genomföra ett simhopp. Now, as one of the world's leading companies in bingo games for land based establishments and casinos online, Bingo players can feel that they are in safe and knowledgeable hands. They are provided by well-known suppliers, checked according to strict rules and equipped with a certified random generator! To deactivate some of the cards takes a click of the arrow icon at bottom left to go to the game menu.

Comments

Submit a Comment

:*
:*